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Full text of "The function of the state university; being the proceedings of the inauguration of Edward Kidder Graham as president of the University of North Carolina"

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K^t jFunttion of tfje ^tate ^nitiersitp 

tEte Wlmtiueitv of Jtottt) Carolina 





X^Xi.NxjL %^^ iff^ i2^ w^ t^* V" V* 

APRIL, 1915 

By transfer 
The tmite House. 




at eleven o'clock 
Governor Locke Craig, presiding 


Edward Rondthaler 

Bishop of the Moravian Church 


Abbott Lawrence Loweli, 
President of Harvard University 

Frank Johnson Goodnow 
President of Johns Hopkins University 

Edwin Anderson Alderman 
President of the University of Virginia 

John Huston Finley 
President of the University of the State of New York 


Francis Preston Venable 
Venable Professor of Chemistry 


Walter Clark 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina 


Locke Craig 
Governor of North Carolina 

tKfje jf unction of tfie ^tate Winihtvsiity 


Edward Kidder Graham 
President of the University of North Carolina 


state universities 

George Hutcheson Denny 

President of the University of Alabama 


WiEEiAM Joseph Martin 
President of Davidson College 

the pubeic schooes 

James Yadkin Joyner 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

the aeumni 

George Stephens 
Of the Class of 1896 

the student body 

Thomas Caeeendine Boushaee 
Of the Class of 1915 

the facuety 

Lucius Poek McGehee 

Dean of the School of Law 


(The audience is requested to rise and join in the singing) 

Bishop Edward RondthaeEr 


(The audience is requested to stand while the academic 
procession is passing out) 

^te Wini\}tv^ity of Movtf) Carolina 


Profe;ssor Joseph Hyde Pratt, Ph. D. 
Grand Marshal 




To assemble at the Law Building at ten o'clock 

T. C. Linn, '16 


J. M. TuRBYFiLL, President 


Oscar LEach, President 


George C. SinglETary, President 

EIRST year medical CLASS 

H. B. Wadsworth, President 


Roger McDuFfie, President 

THE college 

McDaniEl Lewis, President 


E. L. Mackie, President 


G. C. TennEnt, President 

8 Wbt Jf unction of tfie ^tate Winibtx&itp 


the; CI.ASS OF 1898 

To assemble at the University Inn at quarter past ten o'clock 

Richard S. Busbee;, '98 



AIvUMNI OF the; university of north CAROI.INA 

To assemble at the University Inn at quarter past ten o'clock 

ALBERT L. Cox, '04 





To assemble in the Geological Laboratory in New East Build- 
ing at quarter past ten o'clock 
Professor N. W. Wai,ke;r, B. A, 



To assemble in the lecture room in Chemistry Hall at quarter 

past ten o'clock 

Professor Lee Raper, Ph. D. 


^fje Wini\ittiitp of i^ortf) Carolina 9 



To assemble in the office of the Business Manager in Alumni 
Building at quarter past ten o'clock 

Professor James M. Bei.l, Ph. D. 




To assemble at the Old East Building at ten o'clock 

D. L. Seckinger, President Graduate School 


George EuTsi<Er, President Senior Class 




To assemble in the Treasurer's office in the Alumni Building 

at quarter past ten o'clock 

Professor P. H. Winston 


Walter Ceark, LL. D., Chief Justice 
Peatt D. Waeker, LL. D., Associate Justice 
WiEEiAM A. Hoke, LL. D., Associate Justice 
George H. Brown, LL. D., Associate Justice 
WiEEiAM R. AeeEN, LL. D., Associate Justice 

10 Wi^t Jfunttion of tte ^tate tinibersfitp 



To assemble in the Physics lecture room in Alumni Building 
at quarter past ten o'clock 

Prope;ssor Parker Haywood Dagge;tt^ B. S. 

American Philosophical Society 

Processor Walter LeConte Stevens, Ph. D. 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

ProEessor H. V. Wilson, Ph. D. 
New York Academy of Sciences 

Proeessor Charles BaskErvillE, Ph. D. 
Boston Society of Natural History 

Professor Collier Cobb, M. A. 
Smithsonian Institution 

Proeessor Mitchell Carroll, Ph. D. 
American Society of Civil Engineers 

Dean David Carlisle Humphreys, C. E. 
American Philological Association 

Proeessor Ashton Waugh McWhorter, Ph. D. 
National Education Association of the United States 

Frank M. Harper, M. A. 
American Institute of Mining Engineers 

Professor Joseph Hyde Pratt, Ph. D. 
American Chemical Society 

Professor W. Lash Miller, Ph.D. 
American Academy of Medicine 

Charles M. Hazen, M. D. 
American Bar Association 


Cfje Wini\}txiitp of Movtf) Carolina ii 

Archaeological Institute of America 

Professor Mitchell Carroll, Ph. D. 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Park A. Dallis, Honorary Vice-President 
American Forestry Association 

J. S. Holmes, M. F. 
North Carolina Teachers' Assembly 

Superintendent Frank M. Harper, M. A. 
Modern Language Association of America 

Professor C. Alphonso Smith, Ph. D., LL. D. 
American Historical Association 

Professor William Kenneth Boyd, Ph. D. 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Professor Parker Haywood Daggett, B. S. 
American Economic Association 

Professor William H. Glasson, Ph. D. 
Geological Society of America 

Professor Joseph Hyde Pratt, Ph. D. 
American Folk Lore Society 

Professor F. C. Brown, Ph. D. 
New York Academy of Political Science 

Professor William H. Glasson, Ph. D. 
American Psychological Association 

Professor Edward Franklin Buchner, Ph.D. 
American Mathematical Society 

Professor William Holding Echols, B. S., C. E. 
Washington Academy of Sciences 

Professor Mitchell Carroll, Ph. . 
North Carolina Academy of Science 

Professor J. J. Wolfe, Ph. D. 
American Society of Zoologists 

Professor John Irving Hamaker, Ph. D. 

12 tKfje Jf unction of tf)e B>tatt Mnihtv^itp 

General Education Board 

Edwin Anderson Ai^derman, D. C. L., LL. D. 
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 

Ceyde Bowman Furst, M. A. ,Litt. D., Secretary- 
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 

Proeessor Theodore Hough, Ph. D. 
Illuminating Engineering Society 

Professor Wieeiam Hand Brown, Jr., B. A. 



To assemble in the Physics Laiboratory in Alumni Building 
at quarter past ten o'clock 

Professor Charees H. Herty, Ph. D. 
Harvard University 

President Abbott Lawrence Loweee, LL. D, 
William and Mary College 

Professor R. M. Crawford, M. A. 
Yale University 

Charees J. Harris, Alumnus 
University of Pennsylvania 

Hubert AsheEy Royster, M. D., Alumnus 
Princeton University 

John L. Caedweee, M. A., LL. D., Alumnus 
Columbia University 

Dean Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, M. A., LL. D. 

Professor George B. Pegram, Ph. D. 
Rutgers College 

President Wieeiam H. S. Demarest, D. D., LL. D. 
Dartmouth College 

Professor H. W. Chase, Ph. D., Alumnus 

tirije ^Knibergitj) of i^ortfj Carolina i3 

Georgetown University 

Clement Manly, Alumnus 

Salem College 

President H. E. RonthalEr, M. A., B. D., D. D. 

Washington and Lee University 

President Henry Louis Smith, LL. D. 
Hampden-Sidney College 

Professor Ashton Waugh McWhorter, Ph. D. 
University of the State of New York 

President John FinlEy, M. A., LL. D. 
St. Johns College 

President Thomas Fell, Ph. D., D. C. L., LL. D. 
University of Pittsburg 

Chancellor Samuel B. McCormick, D. D., LL. D. 
University of Vermont 

A. L. Johnson, Alumnus 

Williams College 

Charles Russell Brewer, B. A., Alumnus 

University of Georgia 

Harry Hodgson, M. A., Trustee 

University of South Carolina 

President William Spencer Currell, Ph. D. 
Princeton Theological Seminary 

C. G. VardEll, D. D., Alumnus 

University of Virginia 

President Edwin A. Alderman, D. C. L., LL. D. 

George Washington University 

Professor Mitchell Carroll, Ph. D. 

Amherst College 

Reverend Edgar Hunt Goold, B. A., Alumnus 

Trinity College (Conn.) 

Bishop Jos. B. Cheshire, M. A., D. D., Alumnus 

14 W\^t Jfunction of tfje ^tate Wini\itv^it^ 

Jefferson Medical College 

Professor John H. Gibbon, M. D. 
New York University 

Professor Herman HarrelIv Horne, Ph. D. 
Wesleyan University 

Professor Karl Pomeroy Harrington, M. A. 

Reverend Walter Patten, B. A., Alumnus 
University of Alabama 

President George H. Denny, Ph. D., LL. D. 
Lafayette College 

Jacob Lott Ludlow, C. E., M. S., Alumnus 
Richmond College 

President F. W. Boatwright, M. A., LL. D. 
Wake Forest College 

President William Louis Poteat, M. A., LL. D. 
Davidson College 

President William Joseph Martin, Ph. D. 
University of Michigan 

President Robert P. Reade, LL. B., Alumnus 
Greensboro College for Women 

President Samuel B. Turrentine, D. D. 
Medical College of Virginia 

Professor J. Allison Hodges, M. D. 
Emory and Henry College 

President Charles C. Weaver, Ph. D. 
University of Missouri 

Professor Harry R. Fulton, M. A., Alumnus 
St. Mary's School 

Reverend George W. Lay, B. A., B. D., Rector 
The Citadel 

Colonel O. J. Bond, LL. D., Superintendent 
Baylor University 

Professor L. R. Meadows, B. A., Alumnus 

tlTfie Winihtx^itv of i^ortf) Carolina 15 

State (N. C.) School for the Blind 

Joseph E. Pogue, President Board of Directors 

Beloit College 

Professor A. S. Wheeler, Ph. D., Alumnus 

The College of the City of New York 

Proeessor Charles BaskervillE, Ph. D. 
University of Rochester 

Professor James H. Haneord, Ph. D., Alumnus 
Oxford College 

President F. P. Hobgood, M. A. 
Northwestern University 

Professor Abram Van Epps Young, Ph. B. 

Haverford College 

Professor C. O. Meredith, Ph. D., Alumnus 

Trinity College (N. C.) 

President William Preston Few, Ph. D., LL. D. 

Wofford College 

Professor Daniel A. Dupree, M. A. 
Davenport College 

President J. B. Craven, LL. D. 
Queens College 

Dean Ella Young 
Peace Institute 

President George J. Ramsey, M. A., LL. D. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Hugh MacRae, B. S., Alumnus 
Swarthmore College 

President Joseph Swain, LL. D. 
Cornell University 

Professor Wm. H. Glasson, Ph. D., Alumnus 
University of Maine 

Clinton N. Rackcliffe, Alumnus 
University of Illinois 

President Edmund J. James, Ph. D., LL. D. 

16 tKlje Jf unction of tfje ^tate Mni^itvsiitv 

Purdue University 

Professor H. E. SatterfiEIvD, M. E., Alumnus 
University of Cincinnati 

Dean Emiue Watts McVea, M. A. 
Stevens Institute of Technology 

Proeessor Iv. StrothEr Randolph, M. E., Alumnus 
Smith College 

Miss Laura D. Gile, M. A., D. C. L., Alumna 
Vanderbilt University 

Professor Edwin Mims, Ph. D. 

Reverend Charles W. Byrd, D. D., Trustee 
Georgia State School of Agriculture 

Harry Hodgson, M. A., Trustee 

Wellesley College 

Mrs. a. S. WheeeER, B. A., Alumna 
The Johns Hopkins University 

President Frank J. Goodnow, M. A., LL. D. 
Bryn Mawr College 

Dean Marion Reieey, B. A. 
University of Texas 

Professor William Battle Phillips, Ph. D. 
Mount Holyoke College 

Professor Elizabeth E. Shearer, B. A., Alumna 
Clark University 

Professor Josiah Morse, Ph. D. 
Winthrop Normal and Industrial College 

President D. B. Johnson, M. A., EL. D. 
Guilford College 

President Lewis L. Hobbs, LL. D. 
Georgia School of Technology 

President Kenneth G. Matheson, M. A. 
The N. C. College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

President Daniel H. Hill, M.A., Litt. D., LL. D. 

Cfje ®nibers;itp of Jtortft Carolina i7 

Elon College 

Professor E. E. Randolph, Ph. D. 

Converse College 

President Robert P. Pell, Litt. D. 

North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College 

President J. I. Foust, LL. D. 

Dean W. C. Smith, Ph. B. 
Lenoir College 

President R. L. Fritz, M. A., D. D. 

Dean W. H. Little, M. A. 
University of Chicago 

Professor William Albert Nitze, Ph. D. 
Randolph-Macon Woman's College 

President William A. Webb, Litt. D. 
Southern Presbyterian College 

President C. G .Vardell, D. D. 
Elizabeth College 

President Charles B. King, M. A., D. D. 

Meredith College 

President R. T. Vann, D. D. 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary 

President Charles R. Hemphill, Ph. D., D. D. 
Louisburg College for Women 

IvEY Allen, Secretary 
Appalachian Training School 

Professor Roy M. Brown, B. A. 

University of Florida 

Professor Robert N. Wilson, M. S., Alumnus 

Virginia State Normal School at Harrisburg 

Professor John W. Wayland, Ph. D. 

East Carolina Teachers Training School 

President Robert Herring Wright, B. S. 

18 W^t Jf unction of tfje ^tate Winihtv^itp 

Caswell Training School 

Superintendent C. B. McNairy, M. D. 
Rice Institute 

President Edgar Ordeel Lovett, Ph. D., LL. D. 
Emory University 

Dean Peato T. Durham, D. D. 



To assemble in the Dean's office in the Alumni Building at 

quarter past ten o'clock 

Dean Marvin Hendrix Stacy, M. A. 



To assemble in the President's Room in Alumni Building at 
quarter past ten o'clock 

Proeessor J. G. de Roulhac Hamieton, Ph. D. 

Kemp p. Battle, M.A., LL.D. 
President of the University of North Carolina, 1876-1891 

George T. Winston, M. A., LL. D. 
President of the University of North Carolina, 1891-1896 

Edwin Anderson Aederman, D. C. L., LL. D. 

President of the University of Virginia 

President of the University of North Carolina, 1896-1900 

Francis Preston Venabee, Ph. D., D. Sc, LL. D. 
President of the University of North Carolina, 1900-1914 

Edward Kidder Graham, M. A., D. C. L., LL. D. 
President of the University of North Carolina 

tirtc ^niber£fitj> of i^ortJi Carolina 19 

Locke Craig, B. A. 
Governor of North Carolina 

JosEPHus Daniels, LL. D. 
Secretary of the Navy 

Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL. D. 
President of Harvard University 

Frank J. Goodnow, M. A., LL. D. 
President of Johns Hopkins University 

John H. FinlEy, M. A., LL. D. 
President of the University of the State of New York 

Edward Ronthaler, D. D. 
Bishop of the Moravian Church 

George H. Denny, LL. D. 
President of the University of Alabama 

William J. Martin, Ph. D. 
President of Davidson College 

James Y. Joyner, LL. D. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Lucius Polk McGehee, B. A., LL. B. 
Dean of the School of Law 

George Stephens, B. A. 
Of the Class of 1896 

Thomas CallEndine Boushall 
Of the Class of 1915 


Wbt Jf unction of ti)e ^tate Winihtx^itp 


Archibald Henderson 

Benehan Cameron 
John Sprunt Hih 
James A. Gray, Jr. 
H. A. London 
Francis D. Winston 
James Sprunt 

Alvin S. Wheei<ER 


George Stephens 
John W. Fries 
Jueian S. Carr 
John A. Parker 

A. H. ElvEER 

Victor S. Bryant 

Charles Lee Smith 

Joseph Hyde Pratt 
Andrew H. Patterson 
Louis R. Wilson 


J. G. DE RouLHAc Hamilton 
George Howe 
Charles H. Herty 



Bishop Edward Rondthaler, of the Moravian Church 

Thou, our Father, art the God of this nation and 
of all its States. Thou dost rule over our people and 
dost provide for them; and from time to time, Thou 
hast also judged them for their sins, but, thus far, 
Thou hast always forgiven us, as a people, for the 
sake of the Christ, our Savior. 

It is upon Thy blessing that all our institutions 
depend and especially our institutions of education 
and of learning. We thank Thee for the divine favor, 
which, from the outset, has rested on Chapel Hill; 
for its distinguished line of Presidents; for its goodly 
succession of Professors; for the modest thorough- 
ness of its work, and especially for the cordial spirit 
which has ever bound student and instructor together 
on this God-blessed Hill. 

And we now thank Thee for the man, who in Thy 
providence, has been chosen to the Presidency of this 
great University. We thank Thee for those special 
gifts which Thou hast so evidently bestowed upon 
him for the administration of his great task. Bless 
him, O Lord, today and through the many years (if 
it please Thee) of his coming service. Bless him in 
body, soul and spirit; in his family, as well as in his 
office. Bless him in bright days and in dark days ; bless 

22 Wbt jFunction of tfje B>tatt Winihtv^itp 

him in every incident and experience of his noble task; 
and may men recognize that God is with him and deal 
with him accordingly. 

Lay Thy benediction on this memorable occasion. 
Fill it with the spirit of reverence, of wisdom, and of 
mutual good will; — even with Thine own sweet Holy 

Bless the Governor of our State who presides over 
this assemblage; the member of the National Cabinet 
who is with us today; the Chief Justice and other 
Judges of our State ; these educational heads and offi- 
cers from far and near. And with them, do Thou 
bless the great body of residents and visitors and the 
many former and present students who now throng 
this Memorial Hall. May our meeting and fellowship 
with one another be an occasion of new impulse in us 
all to serve Thee and our fellowmen with the very 
best which Thou hast given us to be and to have and 
to do. 

Hear us, in this our united prayer, and save us, our 
Father, now and always, through Jesus Christ, Thy 
Son, our Lord, to whom with the Father and the 
Spirit be all the praise. Amen. 


Governor Locke Craig 

This assemblage is worthy of its purpose. Great 
seats of learning in near and distant states have sent 
their presidents with messages of cheer and wisdom. 
Scholars who cultivate ideals, and statesmen who con- 
struct policies of government, have come. From field 

Cfje Wini\itx&itp of Movtf) Carolina 23 

and factory and busy mart, representative men and 
women who build and support the State have gath- 
ered today. We are grateful that you are here. We 
feel the encouragement and sustaining power of your 
presence. We realize, too, that throughout our com- 
monwealth the pulsations of an earnest people beat 
in sympathy with us. 

We come to dedicate a man to his work. It demands 
the energy of his life always steadfast to the high obli- 
gation that he assumes. The task calls for the no- 
blest, for it is the keeping and the development of this 
institution sanctified by tradition, potential for infinite 

On this day of the inauguration of the new presi- 
dent, by simple ceremonial we devote anew this Uni- 
versity to the service of men, and in this time of 
militant altruism significant of human destiny, with 
victorious assurance we give the forward order. We 
raise him to this exalted place because he is worthy 
of our past, equal to the opportunities of the future, 
and because he will lay upon the altar of this his Alma 
Mater a priceless sacrifice, essential in every scheme 
for the redemption of men: a pure and earnest life. 

This place is endeared to us by precious memories. 
The finest spirit of the past is perpetuated here and 
ever evolves unto higher and broader meaning. 
Through all our generations this University has been 
to us a well of strength springing up into perennial 
life. She enlarges her efforts with larger opportuni- 
ties and with faith and courage welcomes increasing 

24 Wi^e Jf unction of ti^e B>tatt Mnihtxsiitv 

In the age of "the steamship and the railway, the 
thoughts that shake mankind," this is no academy of 
the cloister, nor the voice for every wind of doctrine. 
This University has been and will be the exponent 
of the State's power, the dynamics of the State's life. 
Amid the strife and confusion of our aggressive de- 
mocracy, she shall be vitalized by the currents that flow 
from humanity and in full sympathy strike the clear 
note for higher aspiration and nobler achievement. 
Sustained by all the people, owning allegiance to no 
man, and to naught but God's truth, she can declare 
with authority the creed of enduring progress. Reach- 
ing to all classes and conditions she shall gather unto 
her bosom the robust sons of the State to send them 
forth as ministers of a splendid destiny "with power 
in this dark land to lighten it, and power on this dead 
world to make it live." 

The man and the hour have met. We are opening a 
new chapter in the history of the University of North 


President ABBorr Lawrence Lowell, op Harvard University 

Among those who have met to celebrate this day, I 
have been entrusted with the difficult task of speaking 
about culture. But there is nothing in the world more 
elusive. One cannot define or circumscribe it, for it 
has no precise bounds. One cannot analyse it, for its 
components are infinite. One cannot describe it, for it 
is protean in shape. An attempt to encompass its 

Cfje Wini\itv^itv of i^ortfj Carolina 25 

meaning in words is like trying to seize the air in the 
hand, when one finds it is everywhere except within 
one's grasp. Culture is like what the ancient He- 
brews called wisdom in that it has no fixed habitation, 
but is all-pervading and imponderable in its essence. 
Everyone who has experienced it knows something of 
it ; no one knows it all ; to no two people does it wear 
exactly the same aspect ; and yet to all who have 
in it any share it appears real, substantial, and of 
measureless worth. 

In general, the term is used to denote something dis- 
tinct from a command of the tools of one's trade. The 
lawyer, for example, or the physician, or the engineer, 
may have a complete mastery of all the technical learn- 
ing of his profession without possessing culture. This 
is evident at once when he comes into contact with men 
of other professions. He may talk profoundly about 
his own subject, but have nothing intellectual in com- 
mon with the other men if he lives within the four 
walls of his own occupation and his vision is strictly 
limited thereby. 

That so large a part of general conversation in 
America relates to the weather, to politics, and to 
sport, is not so much because these things are intrin- 
sically more interesting or variable than in other coun- 
tries, as because they are among the few subjects 
that everyone is familiar with and can talk about. 
Professional learning is, no doubt, cultivating, but 
standing alone, it is not culture, for the reason that it 
is circumscribed and includes only a narrow part of 
the stream of human thought. For a lawyer to look 
through the microscope of a man of science increases 

26 tlTije Jf unction of t^e ^tate Wini\)tv^itv 

his means of culture, for it broadens his ideas by re- 
veaHng to his sight things before unknown. But the 
scientific man who can see only through his microscope 
has a very restricted vision of the world; and the 
same thing is true of every pursuit when restricted 
to its own limited field. When Charles Darwin said 
that in his later life he lost interest in almost every- 
thing except the pursuit of his own scientific studies, 
he stated that he was losing his sense of culture ; and 
unless the loss promoted in some way his great work it 
was a misfortune. 

At one time, not yet very remote, culture denoted 
a definite body of knowledge, the common possession 
of all educated men, the boundaries of which were 
fairly well defined by the curriculum of what was call- 
ed a liberal education. The conception of such a dis- 
tinction between liberal or polite learning and other in- 
formation, underlay the squib current at Oxford about 

"My name is Benjamin Jowett, 

I'm the Master of Balliol College, 
Whate'er can be known, I know it, 
And what I don't know is not knowledge." 

But with the rapid growth of human knowledge, 
with the rise in rank of new professions to the same 
level as the older ones, with the extension of the sub- 
jects taught in a scholarly way in the institutions of 
higher learning, it has become obviously impossible 
for anyone to know more than a small part of the 
things that are properly termed liberal or polite. There 
has wholly ceased to be any fixed body of knowledge 
that every well educated man can be expected to 

tlTfje Wini\}tv^itv of i^ortfj Carolina 27 

possess. Nor, save the great monuments of literature, 
especially in one's own tongue, can any subject be 
said to be absolutely essential to the equipment of a 
well educated man, — none that can be labelled indis- 
pensable for culture, — certainly none with which a 
man must be thoroughly familiar. None, on the 
other hand, can be said to form no part of a liberal 
education, — none also, of which the most complete 
mastery will be enough by itself alone to deserve the 
name. A scholar may conceivably have a most minute 
and comprehensive knowledge of history, or of phi- 
losophy, or of classical literature and philology, and 
yet, if he has strictly nothing more, not merit the title 
of a man of culture. 

Culture, therefore, does not mean the possession 
of a body of knowledge common to all educated men, 
for there is no such thing today. It denotes rather an 
attitude of mind than a specific amount of informa- 
tion. It implies enjoyment of things the world has 
agreed are beautiful ; interest in the knowledge that 
mankind has found valuable; comprehension of the 
principles that the race has accepted as true. All this 
involves a desire to know coupled with a capacity to 
acquire, and appreciate. No doubt men differ very 
much in their natural power of acquiring such a cul- 
ture. Some people are born with little or no apti- 
tude for it, others with a strong impulse for it, but no 
one is born possessed of it. No one can attain it 
without long continued toil and an effort which may 
be pleasant or irksome, may seem easy or laborious 
according to personal temperament and energy, but 
which is always strenuous. 

28 ^lie Jf umtion of tije ^tate Winihtv^it^ 

If there is no royal road to learning or to culture, 
no broad highway that one can traverse in rapid in- 
dolence in an expensive motor car, or cheaply for a 
five cent fare, there are, on the other hand, many dif- 
ferent paths leading to the goal — some of them well- 
beaten by the foot-steps of those who have passed, and 
are yearly passing over them ; some less frequented 
and trodden only by earnest men who have the in- 
telligence and persistence to find the way. It is with 
the former that our colleges are chiefly concerned be- 
cause it is their duty to guide students throug"!! the 
most certain and quickest roads to the end they seek. 

But if culture itself is elusive, the roads thereto 
are not fixed by authoritative sign boards, nor mapped 
out by universal agreement; and if culture no longer 
implies a recognized body of knowledge, there is no 
regular curriculum of studies leading to it. An atti- 
tude of mind is a much more subtle thing to produce, 
and many are the differences of opinion about the way 
to set about the task. One cannot speak, therefore, 
dogmatically as of general accepted doctrines, but only 
from the standpoint of personal conviction. 

Certain principles, it seems to me, may be clearly 
seen, or deduced from the nature of the object in 
view. If for culture one must have learned to enjoy 
as many as possible of the things the world deems 
beautiful; to know enough to take an interest in all 
knowledge that mankind has found valuable; and to 
have pondered enough to comprehend the ideas that 
the race has accepted as true, then it is obvious that 
to be cultivated, a man must at some time have had 
some acquaintance with a good many subjects. The 

tKfje Wini\)tx^itp of ^ortfj Carolina 29 

number of these, however, is not so large as one might 
suppose, because entrance into one field often opens 
the gateway to others. Appreciation of good literature 
in one language provides the basis for appreciating it 
in another, and to a less extent this is true between 
any two different arts. The same thing may be said 
of the various branches of science. Each subject 
has many points of contact to which any new kindred 
thing will adhere, so that, unless it withers away by 
disuse, knowledge tends to roll up like a snowball. 
Similes are the bane of educational reasoning, and 
perhaps in this case it would be better to use the lan- 
guage in which I have already spoken of culture, and 
say that an attitude of intellectual attention and ap- 
preciation having been acquired in any subject, it 
tends to increase and to bring fresh knowledge of 
things similar to those in which interest has been 

The moral to be drawn is that which the late Wil- 
liam James laid down in his "Talks to Teachers" — 
All thought springs from a cue ; therefore increase 
the number of cues as much as you can. The man or 
woman who desires to be cultivated should strive to 
have at least a little familiarity with as many diverse 
fields of human thought as possible. No great region 
should be wholly a strange, unexplored wilderness, 
traversed only by people who utter dark sentences in 
an unknown tongue. 

A second moral may also be taken from William 
James. He used to insist that no one learns a new 
subject after twenty-nine, and the saying sometimes 
hurt the feelings of people who had passed that age. 

30 Cfie ^function of tfie ^tate ^niber£Sitj» 

Nevertheless, it is in the main true, not only because 
after maturity the mind is normally less receptive, but 
also because modern life is so full of activity, even for 
those who have nothing useful to do, that it is hard 
to find time for the heavy work of studying the ele- 
ments of a new subject. 

But there is another side to all this. A mere smat- 
tering of many things may give a facility in conversa- 
tion, an appearance of education, a superficial aspect 
of culture, while the substance is hopelessly lacking. 

I remember a young friend of mine of whom 
it was said he was striving to acquire many accom- 
plishments but no education. It is not enough to stake 
out a claim to knowledge, and run the bounds. That 
may be of some use against outsiders, but it yields little 
profit to oneself. The possessor may claim the terri- 
tory, but he cannot live on it. Everyone is aware of 
the difference between two people in their intellectual 
approach to a subject with which they have only a 
slight acquaintance when one of them has a smattering 
of many things without a real mastery of any, and the 
other has a firm grasp of the principles in some branch 
of knowledge. We say that the latter has a trained 
mind while the smatterer has not. The trained mind 
recognizes quickly the distinction between superficial 
phenomena and the underlying causes that produce 
them. Such a mind goes, we say, easily to the root 
of the matter. This is an art that can be learned, but 
like other arts, it can be learned only by practice, that 
is by getting at the root of something. 

The art, or the habit of getting at the root of things 
is essentially an attitude of mind. So far as the sub- 

tKJje ZKnibergitp of i^rtfj Carolina 31 

ject matter is concerned over which a mastery is ac- 
quired it may be called knowledge, but as regards other 
subjects it is certainly an attitude of mind, and this is 
the more enduring. The special knowledge may pass 
away, but the habit of thought does not. Let me take 
an example from science, for the laws of nature are as 
fully a branch of modern culture as anything else. If 
one learns by the study of geology to observe natural 
objects not merely to see what is obvious to the un- 
trained eye, but to notice those things that are related 
to geologic forces — he may find after a time that the 
names and characteristics of the different rocks, the 
detail in the succession of the different strata, are in 
great part forgotten through disuse, but the habit of 
observation will remain and can be applied to other 
natural objects. In fact, such a habit will almost cer- 
tainly be kept from decay by constant use in many 
things. This is true of all study, no matter what the 
subject may be; and if so, a penetrating, thorough and 
profound attitude of mind is one of the most important 
arts that can be acquired. 

This address deals not so much with culture, as 
with the basis for culture that can be laid by a college 
or university, for culture like all education must con- 
tinue through life. All we can do as teachers is to 
lay the best foundation for it that we can, and the 
upshot of the argument here presented is comprised 
in the old adage that the true basis for culture is to 
know a little of everything and everything of some- 
thing. While we may admit that this is the object to 
be sought, sharp differences of opinion exist, and will 
long remain, in regard to the means of attaining it. 

32 Wi)t jFunction of tl^e ^tate ®nibers!itj> 

One question thrusts itself prominently forward. 
Every man who is to study a profession must, if he 
is serious, master that subject well; why then, it may 
be asked, should he not devote his previous college 
course wholly to getting as wide an acquaintance with 
as many subjects as possible, and leave his thorough 
knowledge of one field to his professional training? 
The answer is obvious to anyone who has had prac- 
tical experience The mind that deals only with ele- 
mentary work in many subjects rarely gets the vigorous 
training needed to acquire a firm grasp of any of them. 
The smatterer on leaving college is a smatterer. He 
has never learned anything thoroughly, and although 
me may do so later, his subsequent training will hardly 
relate backwards to illumine and deepen his knowl- 
edge of subjects that was superficial when he acquired 
it. If the best result is to be obtained, the thorough 
study of one subject must be contemporaneous with 
the diversified study of others and radiate light into 

Another question of a diametrically opposite tend- 
ency presents itself no less forcibly. Why should not 
the professional study accompany the getting of an 
acquaintance with many other subjects, so that both 
go along together, the professional training supplying 
the backbone of the college curriculum? This is a 
•much more subtle, if not a more difficult question, and 
it is one that we must actually face, because it involves 
a strong existing tendency among American colleges. 
Again the answer to it is found only in practical ex- 
perience. Professional study leading to a man's ca- 
reer in life, is and ought to be, almost passionately ab- 

Wf)t Wini\}tt^itv of iBortf) Carolina 33 

sorbing in comparision with other subjects pursued at 
the same time. These are apt to be regarded as of 
lesser importance as outlying parts of the curriculum 
of the school somewhat arbitrarily forced upon the 
student, and not of direct value commensurate with 
the things needed in professional life. It is well-nigh 
impossible, for example, to persuade a student of law, 
medicine or engineering that literature is for him a 
serious matter, on a par with his technical work. Gen- 
eral subjects are, therefore, likely to be neglected or 
treated lightly when studied in a school primarily pro- 
fessional. When, on the other hand, professional 
courses are introduced into a college curriculum they 
are apt to suffer, not, indeed, as compared with the 
general subjects, but as compared with what can be 
accomplished in a school wholly devoted to preparation 
for a career. It is difficult in a college, with its al- 
luring extra curriculum activities, to create the strong 
professional atmosphere that promotes the best tech- 
nical training. 

For men, therefore, who can give the time, there is a 
distinct advantage in pursuing their general studies be- 
fore the professional ones. In short, there is much to 
be said for separating the work of college and pro- 
fessional schools. It follows also that the course in 
the college ought to cover a number of different sub- 
jects, together with a somewhat thorough study of one 
among them. What that one should be will vary with 
the personal aptitude of the student. In my own 
opinion, it is better, as a general rule, that it should 
not be too closely akin to the subject which will en- 
gross attention in the chief occupation of life; because 

34 ^t^t Jf unction of tije ^tate ?!anibergitj> 

any direct professional knowledge that can be obtained 
in college is trifling compared with what can be ac- 
quired in a far shorter period in a professional school, 
and the attempt to obtain it crowds out some other sub- 
ject that will probably never be studied at a later time. 

This is not the time to review the methods of educa- 
tion in foreign countries. To be successful, any sys- 
tem must be consistent with itself, and it is unsafe to 
graft a foreign limb into a root unadapted to sustain 
it. So far as culture is concerned, our problem is to 
develop in harmony with our own institutions a type 
of education that will cause young people to enjoy the 
things the world has agreed are beautiful, to be in- 
terested in the knowledge mankind has found valuable, 
and to comprehend the principles the race has accepted 
as true. This is culture, and to impart it is a function 
of the American college. 

We are sometimes told that after youths are eman- 
cipated from the rigid discipline of the schoolmaster, 
they cannot be made to take very seriously any studies 
which do not have a manifest bearing on their career 
in life. But if it be true that they cannot be led to 
work hard in an earnest effort to understand the 
knowledge slowly wrought out, and the civilization 
painfully achieved by man upon this planet, then our 
colleges do not deserve to survive and will certainly 

Wi)t Wini\itxfiitv of i^rtfi Carolina 35 


President Frank Johnson Goodnow, oe Johns 
Hopkins University 

I don't know that I can illustrate better what I wish 
to say about the importance of research and investiga- 
tion than by telling a story which one of my friends 
once told me. 

He was travelling on one of the steamers which 
go through Long Island Sound from New York to 
Boston. It was a beautiful night and he was up near 
the bow of the boat looking over the rail at the bril- 
liant phosphorescence in the water. As the bow wave 
curled over flashes of lambent fire illumined the dark 
sea. He became conscious of the presence of a man 
who also was struck with the beauty of the scene. This 
man said to him: "Sir, can you tell me what is the 
cause of the light in the water down there?" My 
friend said, "I don't really know what is the cause, but 
some of my scientific friends tell me that it is to be 
found in the presence of minute organisms, which 
glow in somewhat the same way in which fireflies give 
forth light as they fly about through the air." The 
questioner hesitated a moment and then replied : "I 
don't believe it. I don't suppose that any man in the 
United States has thought more about this matter than 
I have, and I never thought of that." 

The attitude of this man towards this natural phe- 
nomenon is, it seems to me, characteristic of the for- 
mer attitude of even the most intelligent members of 
the human race towards the life which they saw 
around them. Indeed, we might perhaps say that, the 

36 Ct)e ^Function of tfje ^tate Wini\itvsiit^ 

more intelligent men were, the more apt they were to 
attempt to reach a solution of the many problems pre- 
sented to them through distinctly thinking processes. 
The more thoughtful they were, the more apt they 
were to generalize; and such generalizations as were 
reached were commonly based on theoretical specula- 
tion controlled by what was called logical reasoning. 

The desire which the human mind has had for an 
explanation of the universe, — man's intellectual curi- 
osity, — has led to the formulation of systems of what 
were called philosophy which attempted to explain the 
whys and the wherefores of the universe as well as of 
this earthly life. 

Furthermore, the sense of helplessness which most 
men have had in the presence of nature has led many 
of the originators of these philosophical systems to dis- 
cover supernatural causes for the most ordinary phe- 
nomena. Systems of theology have been framed 
which have endeavored thus to explain what at the 
time was otherwise inexplicable. Other such systems 
have attempted to reconcile man to the adoption of 
the conception that there is much that will always re- 
main inexplicable with regard to which we must have 
faith in the purposes of a beneficent but inscrutable 

I think it is fair to say then, that the common atti- 
tude of man towards the phenomena of life has been 
one of what we may call thoughtfulness. He has 
speculated rather than observed, theorized rather than 
experimented. We may go even further. We may 
say that this is the attitude of most men at the present 
time. In only one group of peoples is there a different 

tICte Wini\3tviitv of ^ortf) Carolina 37 

attitude. These peoples are those of European origin. 
Among these peoples, of recent years, quite a different 
intellectual attitude has been assumed. They have 
within the last three hundred years regarded with an 
increasing distrust attempts to explain natural phe- 
nomena by speculative and purely theoretical pro- 
cesses. Perhaps no better illustration can be given of 
the present attitude of the European mind than is con- 
tained in the rather famous modern definition of a phi- 
losopher as a "blind man looking in a dark room for 
a black cat which is not there." 

The former philosophical, speculative, theoretical, 
a priori attitude has been replaced, however, in recent 
times by what is spoken of as the scientific, practical, 
inductive attitude. Less emphasis is now laid on mere 
thinking, more on observation and experiment. Gen- 
eralizations are now made as the result of the consider- 
ation of facts ascertained through careful observa- 
tion. When made, such generalizations are checked 
and limited by experiment. 

By changing their attitude in this way European 
peoples are not, however, really making a new depart- 
ure. They are rather resuming the attitude which at 
one time differentiated the European from other 
minds. More than two thousand years ago the lead- 
ers of European thought had begun to observe, to 
generalize from their observations and to limit their 
generalizations through experiments. Hippocrates 
and Aristotle, not to mention others, had begun the at- 
tempt to lay the foundations of scientific as opposed to 
philosophical thinking. But for some reason or other 
these first rather feeble efforts were checked and after 

38 Wbt Jf unction of tte ^tate ?Hnibersiitj> 

about 200 A. D. the European adopted for all prac- 
tical purposes the intellectual attitude which had been 
common to the rest of mankind. For fifteen hundred 
years he speculated and theorized. He forgot to ob- 
serve and experiment. It was only with the revival of 
Greek learning, about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, that his feet began to tread the paths of science 
from which so long they had strayed. 

Now what are the concrete manifestations of this 
new mental attitude? And what are the effects which 
it has on educational ideals and methods? 

In the first place I think we may properly say that 
the modern educated man, the scholar, if we may use 
that much abused term, is a much more modest man 
than was the case with his forbear. He distrusts 
broad generalizations, he abhors general theories, he 
has no faith whatever in panaceas for the ills from 
which society suffers. He knows that development in 
any direction is a slow and often painful process and 
that adjustment to changes in conditions will be made 
more easily where those affected will possess their 
souls in patience. He is convinced that every addi- 
tion to our knowledge must come as the result of pains- 
taking observation rather than of brilliant thinking. 

In a word I think we may say that the most re- 
markable concrete manifestation of this changed in- 
tellectual attitude is that the scholar and the practical 
man have come closer together. I am afraid also that 
we shall have to admit that this rapprochement has 
been due rather to a change upon the part of the 
scholar than to an abandonment of his position by the 
practical man. For in the old days when the scholar 

tE^fje ®[nibers;itj> of Movtl) Carolina 39 

generalized the practical man often refused to accept 
his generalizations, and a good deal was heard about 
the contrast between theory and practice. At the pres- 
ent time, however, the sometime theoretical scholar 
has been replaced by the skilled expert whose opinions 
are requested by the practical man as a means of as- 
sisting him in the solution of the problems of daily 

This change in our mental attitude has naturally 
had an important influence on our educational ideals 
and methods. We endeavor probably more than ever 
before to inculcate in those who are being educated 
the desire to find out as a result of research and in- 
vestigation what are the actual facts and what is the 
real truth. Never before in the history of European 
education has the pursuit of truth been so ardently fol- 
lowed. Never before in the history of European 
thought has thought been so free. Never before have 
so few obstacles been opposed to finding out what 
really is. Precision and accuracy have assumed virtues 
they never had before, not so much because our morals 
have improved as because we see how necessary it is to 
be precise and accurate. In the old days when it was 
not considered possible to prove a generalization, gen- 
eralizers were more daring than at present when their 
conclusions are subjected to the acid test of experi- 

Furthermore our educational ideals have changed in 
that they are much more closely related than formerly to 
the facts of life. There is much in human life to be stud- 
ied and to be learned, which, if studied and learned, 
will make our lives happier and better. We have come 

40 tlTfje Jf unction of tfje ^tate ?Hnitiet£{itj> 

to the conclusion that such a study is worthy of our best 
efforts. Where we know we can study and really learn 
we naturally ask the question why should we speculate 
and theorize. Take for example the great field of 
medical research. We know that if we use the mi- 
croscope, the scalpel, and the test tube we shall in all 
probability discover the cause and cure of disease. 
Why under such conditions should we not devote our 
attention to medicine even at the expense of some less 
practical subject? Take again the great fields of sci- 
ence and engineering. We know as a result of our 
past experience that a knowledge of these subjects 
will help us to conquer nature, to annihilate space and 
time through improvement in the means of communi- 
cation. Why under these conditions should we not 
devote ourselves to the study of these subjects even if 
by so doing we have less time to speculate upon the 
origin and fate of things? 

This change in our mental attitude has affected also 
in a most vital manner our methods of instruction. 
We lay more emphasis on the power to do than on the 
ability to think. We prize more the capacity to gen- 
eralize than the power to memorize. The recitation 
is giving way to the laboratory. The lecture is making 
place for the source book and the collection of read- 
ings. We who are teaching try probably more than 
teachers formerly tried to get the student to do things 
for himself. We encourage him to become an active 
agent rather than a passive recipient. 

In many of our higher institutions of learning the 
investigator occupies a place whose importance is 
comparable with that formerly occupied by the teacher. 

tlTfje tHnibersiitp of ilortfi Carolina 41 

Indeed in more than one of our universities appoint- 
ment to the higher positions is dependent perhaps more 
upon productive abiHty than upon teaching capacity. 
To our former educational ideals we have added the 
new one of research and investigation. Institutions 
which were founded primarily as teaching institutions 
are perhaps better known for the contributions which 
their members make to the sum of our knowledge than 
for the number of students they instruct. 

This attention which has in recent years been paid 
to research, has finally had the effect of stimulating 
through private beneficence the establishment of or- 
ganizations which devote themselves exclusively to 
research and investigation and of causing governments 
to employ persons of ability who shall devote their 
entire time to similar work. 

In this way the change in the attitude of the Euro- 
pean mind, which has come about during the last three 
centuries, has brought with it corresponding changes 
in our educational ideals and in our pedagogical meth- 
ods. Can it truthfully be said that those changes have 
not been of the greatest advantage? We must of 
course curb our enthusiasm for research and investi- 
gation so that it will not lead us to neglect other things 
of value. We must remember that we have a past as 
well as a future ; that we even now know many things 
although we have much to discover and learn. We 
who have the young to teach must not forget our 
charges in our pursuit of the unknown. 

If, however, we are mindful of our duties no rea- 
sonable objection can be made to our inclusion of re- 
search and investigation among the purposes of our 

42 Wbt Jf unction of tfie ^tate Wini\itv&itp 

educational institutions. If we teach those who are 
entrusted to our care that there is a past without a 
knowledge of which the present can hardly be under- 
stood, no reasonable persons can complain if we at the 
same time try to teach our students to be precise and 
accurate and to give them the ability to act and do as 
well as to think and remember. 


President Edwin Anderson Alderman, oe the 
University oe Virginia 

A certain fine distinction inheres in American life 
because that life, as a political system, at least, was 
born in the romantic dawn of the democratic era, 
ushered in by the brilliant thinking of the great French 
philosophers of the eighteenth century. These for- 
ward-looking men first formulated and asserted that 
notion of the social order in which true individualism 
and true socialism complemented each other, and in 
which the authority which must always be adminis- 
tered by a few was constituted and controlled by the 
many. The solid and permanent glory of this nation 
or any nation so born must finally be determined by 
its ability to comprehend and to re-adapt the theory and 
practice of democracy, as its reacts upon society in its 
progressive changes, as an eternal faith, elastic enough 
to confront and strong enough to overcome the chang- 
ing forms of human injustice. 

When Thomas Jefferson was writing the Declara- 
tion of Independence, Adam Smith was writing The 
Wealth of Nations. In the heart of the American lay 

Cfje ?Knibers;itp of Movtf) Carolina 43 

the fear of kings and nobles, a belief in the perfecta- 
bility of man, patience with his weaknesses, and faith 
in his final wisdom, if helped and guided by the co- 
operative state. In the heart of the Scotchman lay the 
fear of poverty and disorder, the instability of the 
masses, and a vision of ordered prosperity achieved by 
individual initiative unhampered by state influence. The 
fears of each of these great thinkers, as well as their 
hopes, struck and still strike deep into the human heart, 
and the philosophies built upon their doctrines, vitalized 
by the growth of the natural sciences, have created, it 
may be claimed, this vast complex thing we call the 
modern state, and particularly the American Republic. 
The teachings of both, though essentially antagonistic, 
have run a free course for over a century, and we find 
ourselves today a rich, powerful, prosperous people but 
still striving to be a sympathetic, just, and free people, 
with the faith of democracy still in our hearts and the 
weapon of public education in our hands. 

The concept of democracy varies with the soul and 
reveals the character of the man or the people who de- 
fine and use it. Our most vivid and illuminating defi- 
nitions have come from the Latin races. The Anglo- 
Saxon has defined it less vividly but has lived it per- 
haps more consistently. Joseph Mazzini declared it to 
be the progress of all, through all, under the leadership 
of the wisest. Louis Pasteur esteemed it to be that 
order in the state in which every man has the oppor- 
tunity to make the most of himself. Talleyrand 
cynically declared it to be an aristocracy of black- 
guards. Hamilton roughly described it as a great 
beast. Singularly enough, Jefferson never tried to 

44 K\)t Jf unction of tije ^tate Winiiitv^itp 

define it. Like Christianity to the Master, it was not 
a nomenclature to him, but a life, and its guiding prin- 
ciple, as I have pointed out, was the terribly simple 
conviction, not yet fully tested by time or experience, 
that unequal and prone to err as men are, you can 
trust men if you will train them. Conceived of as a 
spirit ruling in the heart of the individual, democracy 
means, according to the American point of view, faith 
in the ultimate rectitude of public impulse and the 
ultimate wisdom of trained intelligence. As a po- 
litical system, it is that state in which men have an 
opportunity to earn freedom through mastery of them- 
selves and likewise a right to govern themselves 
and others through the exercise of reason, intelli- 
gence and sympathy. As a working social theory 
democracy has greatly advanced its point of view 
from a theory of politics and philosophy to a 
theory of social and economic fairness and oppor- 
tunity; from a negative fear of tyrants to a posi- 
tive hope of perfection. The great grandsons of the 
men who debated about the rights of man and what 
seemed to them the Utopia of equal suffrage, now fo- 
cus their thoughts upon the nature of capital, the 
rights of labor, the country road, the country school, 
the growing child, the sanitary home — a clear path 
from rural isolation to some such place as this. En- 
lightenment — Aufkldrung — is the supreme essential of 
democracy while democracy is the supreme opportun- 
ity of enlightenment. If such, then, be the nature of 
modern democracy, it is very clear that the one thing 
it cannot do without is the school, and the one thing 
the school, high or low, cannot do without is a clear 

Wbt Winibtviiitp of iSortfi Carolina 45 

notion of how it can train all men not only to perform 
the duties of free citizenship but can give all men an 
opportunity to obtain a fair share of the fullness of 
life. What the wisest parent desires for his child, that 
the whole community now plans to give all of the chil- 
dren. The acid test of all public teaching, especially 
the higher education — which simply means more 
education — would seem to be, therefore, the quality 
and quantity of the service it can render to so- 
ciety in promoting its welfare. With a touching faith 
in the power of education, not alone as a scheme of 
particularism and localism, but as a great elemental 
force moulding the character of peoples, America is 
trying to evolve a scheme of training more powerful 
and far reaching perhaps, certainly in its aim, than any 
ever before undertaken by men in this world, alike in 
the scale of expenditure, in the masses of men and 
women engaged in its work, and the millions of youth 
subjected to its discipline. In theory this whole under- 
taking is one daring, unified, correlated process, and 
at its summit stands the university — in a peculiar or- 
ganic sense, the state university — existing both as 
the symbol and the servant of the spiritual insights 
and practical needs of its epoch. 

I shall not try to define the university. Where 
Cardinal Newman has failed, though he enveloped the 
whole idea with a wonderful and beautiful idealism, 
I certainly need not seek to succeed, but I may try to 
understand its evolution. The university, as an educa- 
tional form, came into being as a technical school to 
train priests, to teach the chief end of man to a so- 
ciety absorbed in other worldliness. Through a series 

46 Vtfit ^function of tfje ^tate Wini\itv&it^ 

of other technical schools beginning with medicine, 
law, and philosophy, it steadily expanded, under the 
pressure of social necessities and the rise of new pro- 
fessions, into a thing so vast and varied that simple 
folk cannot comprehend its categories, much less its 
catalogues, and gaze upon its activities as a country 
storekeeper might gaze upon the floors and aisles of 
a Grand Magasin. Three things it must always some- 
how contrive to do: 1. It must investigate; 2. It must 
instruct within and without its walls ; 3. It must pub- 
lish and propagate its ideas. As the activities of a 
modern state began to be based more and more 
upon exact knowledge and exact science, the uni- 
versity promptly organized to train leaders and work- 
ers in those knowledges and sciences, and the nine- 
teenth century has seen it take the last and final 
step in academic expansion by which it took on the 
character of a great co-operative public corporation, 
if you will, uniting on almost equal terms with the 
state in contributing to the material, social, and 
moral welfare of all the people without as well is 
within its walls. With a vague but sublime presci- 
ence and confidence, the universities of democracy 
are seeking to visualize and comprehend what con- 
stitutes public welfare in all its undefined but, to 
their hopes, manifold unity. Democracy understands 
imperfectly but steadily that it will break down of the 
very excess of its unmeasured idealism if it be not co- 
ordinated and buttressed by the dignity, the beauty, 
and the peace of Culture, and I spell this word here 
with a capital C, for I do not mean organized efficiency 
in handling the materials of civilization but a free per- 

Cfje ^Hnilierfifitp of fyxt^ Carolina 47 

sonality with a tolerant mind and an open heart. Hence 
democracy must build museums, collect libraries, 
gather beauty under noble roofs and conserve such 
precious truth as has been handed down from ages 
past. Democracy knows, however, that it cannot func- 
tion or order its free, varied life without the power 
and momentum that come out of exact, discriminating 
knowledge and the stability of a steadfast will. Hence 
it seeks to build laboratories, to endow research, to sift 
the masses for genius capable of the highest. De- 
mocracy also feels as well as knows that all of its labo- 
ratories and scholars will prove unavailing if they 
shall be doomed to work in an atmosphere of an unen- 
lightened and ungrateful public opinion. Hence its 
universities must seek to organize and extend their in- 
fluence in such fashion as to touch and mould the 
sources of public opinion. Life or death to American 
democracy depends upon whether its scheme of educa- 
tion shall be strong and catholic enough to reach not 
alone the youth to be educated but all the forces which 
surround him and which educate him — companions, 
family, community, a force which Fichte dreamed his 
university would be, "a place from which, as from the 
spiritual heart of the community, a current of life- 
energy might be poured through all its members." 
The reorganization of political and industrial life on 
the principle of democracy and stimulated by the ele- 
mentary and secondary schools has brought into ex- 
istence a new world of men. Refusal to administer to 
the needs of this new world would mean a menace to 
the body of civilization. To train the tenth man was 
the function of the ancient university. To train all 

48 W^z ^function of tfje ^tate ®nibers;itj> 

men, directly or indirectly, is the duty of the American 
university within whose walls I am convinced the his- 
tory and destiny of democracy will be shaped. I can 
well fancy what a dream this appears to an old and 
weary civilization or to certain temperaments among 

"Is It a dream? 

Nay, but the lack of it a dream ! 

And, wanting this, life's wealth and lore a dream, 

And all the world a dream !" 

The very glory and practicality of the mighty optim- 
ism, endowing it with a sort of religious and mystic 
attraction, give men the impulse to live and die that it 
may indeed come true. One ugly peril hovering about 
seats of learning in past ages has at least been dispelled 
forever by this dream and this new function of learn- 
ing. No longer can institutions be mere fortresses of 
exclusive knowledge engrossed in mere pride of at- 
tainment. They must dwell among and daily draw 
nearer to men, not in pride but in eagerness and hu- 
mility. Philosophy as the doctrine of practical wisdom 
is at the service of mankind at least, as Kant wished it 
to be. 

The duty of the university to care for the state is 
subtly supplanting, or complementing as an axiom, the 
duty of the state to care for the university. It is a seri- 
ous question whether democracy has ever yet been 
able to give as efficient a government as an intelligent 
autocracy, and I apprehend as a result of the almost 
superhuman efficiency of the German empire, as dis- 
played in this war, and of the war itself as a war of 
people, that we shall find it necessary to debate all 

Wi)t ®[nibersiitj> of iOUirtfj Carolina 49 

over the world not only the comparative advantages of 
the two systems as to their ability to spread communal 
welfare, to exhibit public economy in the conduct of 
their affairs, and to extend to great peoples standards 
of common comforts and fields of opportunity, but the 
whole question of state socialism as against individual- 
ism as the basis of democratic government. We shall 
not have to debate which of the two systems — auto- 
cracy, placing its whole trust in the application of phy- 
sical science to material wealth or technical skill as the 
final fruit of civilization, or democracy, trying halting- 
ly to understand the spiritual foundations of society — 
can keep its head in a tempest or protect itself from 
barbaric debacle. The discipline of democracy does 
not make for quick and blind obedience but it does 
induce the habit of acting for one's self and of asking 
one's self in every public or private crisis, where does 
the right lie in this matter? It does somehow exalt 
the intelligence of the heart which enables men and 
nations to understand each other above the intelligence 
of the mind which enables them merely to outwit each 

There is, therefore, no need of despair. What our 
aims lack in definiteness and consistency they make 
up for in richness and freedom. If for some eras yet 
we must pay in terms of waste and unscientific ar- 
rangement for our patience and faith in the final com- 
ing of this richer and freer result, we may comfort 
ourselves with the thought that after all it is not good 
government as an end, but good, free citizenship as a 
means that education is striving for. As Romain Hol- 
land suggests each nation must cultivate its own gar- 

50 tE^ije Jf unction of tije ^tate Winihtxsitp 

den but of all the garden flowers, the finest is the "wild 
violet of liberty." The American university, then, 
must include but go beyond the specific English aim, 
if one may dare to sum up in brief phrases the national 
ideal as expressed in educational forms, to train a 
gentleman's will and give his spirit culture. It must 
transcend but include the specific French aim of clarity 
of expression and artistic distinction. It must surpass 
but comprehend the specific German aim of investiga- 
tion, discovery, and organization. Democracy needs 
indeed the truth finder, the expert, the straight thinker, 
the man of cultivated manner, but it needs more in- 
sistently a social environment in which university 
teachers are as conscious of what the people are 
thinking and needing as the people are conscious of 
what the teachers are doing. Conceived by public wis- 
dom, sustained by public virtue, conditioned in its de- 
velopment by the fact that none can be well educated 
unless all are trained, the American university cannot 
withhold its hand from any of the probelms of social 
and moral development stirring in the nation. It may 
well be decided that some universities cannot undertake 
all of these far-reaching ends, but the state university at 
least must strive towards such a discharge of its func- 
tions as will cause a quicker intelligence to filter 
throughout all ranks of its life and will touch help- 
fully community as well as individual life. Univer- 
sities beholding their duty in such large directions 
must contrive to avoid the manifest dangers of such a 
wide policy, for the policy in some degree must be 
pursued and the university must not become a sort of 
hysterical factotum trying to reach everybody and do 

tirte ?KnitJer£iitp of i^ortf) Carolina 51 

everything. The university must not fail to hold in 
mind that, whatever its widest service may be, its first 
business it to teach only those subjects in which it can 
defy the critics of scholars and hold the interest of 
learners, and spiritually it must somehow continue to 
be "an Alma Mater knowing her children one by one 
and not a factory or a mint or a treadmill." Within 
its walls, I feel sure that our universities must advance 
their standards both of requirements for admission 
and requirements for graduation. They must sharply 
stiffen their intellectual discipline and augment, if pos- 
sible, the primary sources of research and investiga- 
tion. Greater and more unique creative work must 
issue from American universities and a more vigorous 
discipline inform their life, and all this must and can 
be done without jeopardizing the democratic basis of 
higher education. Herein democracy as in so many 
other ways makes terrible demand upon the common 
sense as well as the spiritual vision of its servants, but 
the test must be met. 

Our time-honored, three-fold division of govern- 
ment may well be expended into a four-fold division — 
legislative, executive, judicial, and educative — and the 
university justly takes its place as that co-ordinate 
branch of democratic government out of which may 
be drawn a body of experts and social-minded men of 
good common sense ever ready to undertake to ana- 
lyze and to understand and to sympathize with the 
state in its making; who can organize its chief est in- 
dustry, the education of its children ; who can help de- 
termine the sort of education which will really pro- 
mote democracy; who can foster economic organiza- 

52 tKfje Jf unction of tfje ^tate Winiiitt^it^ 

tion in its rural life; who can vitalize and socialize the 
isolation of its country life ; who can improve its agri- 
culture and animal husbandry; who can justly aid in 
ordering its public revenues ; who can give direction to 
its thought and can become finally aggressive and ef- 
fective in the application of scientific knowledge and 
business sense to its affairs and spiritual unity and 
direction to its impulses and aims. Whatever path of 
service our American universities may choose, and 
freedom of choice belongs to them, the path of this 
particular University, entering today so impressively 
upon a new and confident era in its history, lies clear 
and shining before it. No just man can deny to it 
leadership as the chief constructive agent in the build- 
ing of a new social order in an old historic state whose 
entire history, in weal or woe, in defeat or triumph, 
is the very epic of the deathlessness of democratic 

This spot to me is a place of high memories and re- 
alities. Here I studied and taught and administered. 
Here I made acquaintance with the charm of scholar- 
ship and the obligation of public service. Here de- 
mocracy for me ceased to be a theory and embodied 
itself in living forms. I acclaim with affection and 
with confidence the new high priest who today takes 
his place at this altar. Strength to his arm and vision 
to his brain and steadfastness to his heart; and may 
Alma Mater live and grow and flourish forever. 

W^t Wini\}tvsiity of ^rtfi Carolina 53 


In the absence of President Abbott Lawrence Low- 
ell, who was unable to be present on account of death 
in his family, greetings from Harvard were presented 
by Professor Charles H. White, as follows : 

"The President and Fellows of Harvard College to 
the Trustees and Faculty of the University of North 

"Greeting : 

"Harvard University sends its heartiest congratu- 
lations to the Trustees and Faculty of the University 
of North Carolina upon the inauguration of Edward 
Kidder Graham, as President, on Wednesday, the 
twenty-first of April, nineteen hundred and fifteen. 

"In response to the courteous invitation to be rep- 
resented at the ceremonies, Abbott Lawrence Lowell, 
LL. D., President, will be the delegate to convey the 
felicitations of Harvard University. 

"Given at Cambridge on the fifteenth day of April 
in the year of Our Lord nineteen hundred and fifteen, 
and of Harvard College the two hundred and seventy- 

"A. Lawrence Lowei,!/, President." 

54 Cfje jf unction of tije ^tate ?Hnibers;itp 



Ex-President Francis Preston Venable 

Your Bxcellency: 

It is my privilege and a great pleasure to present 
Edward Kidder Graham, who has been chosen as the 
eighth President of the University of North Carolina. 
I take much pride in the fact that I have had a share 
in his teaching and training. I have watched his 
growth and promise and achievements through his stu- 
dent years and the years of service in the faculty and 
they give me an assured confidence in his ability and 

I present to you the President-elect. 


Chief Justice Walter Clark, oe the Supreme Court 
OF North Carolina 

I, Edward Kidder Graham, in entering upon the 
office of President of the University of North Caro- 
lina, do undertake to fulfil its duties to the best of my 
ability and without fear or favor; to cherish and en- 
courage sound scholarship in its search for the truth; 
to consecrate all powers of the University to the in- 
tellectual, moral, and physical training of youth for the 
most loyal and enlightened citizenship ; and wherever 
and in whatever form it is our privilege to see the 
need, I pledge the University to impartial and sympa- 

Cfje Wim\)tt9iitv of i^orti) Carolina 55 

thetic service of the people of the State. So help me 


Governor Locke Craig 

Edward Kidder Graham, by my authority as Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina and President of the Board of 
Trustees of the University of North Carolina, and by 
virtue of your election by the said Board of Trustees, 
and the oath by which you have pledged yourself, I do 
now declare you President of the University of North 
Carolina and deliver to you its charter and seal. And 
I charge you to a full realization of the responsibilities 
laid upon you by this office ; to the necessity for coura- 
geous and constructive thought in their fulfilment ; and 
to the duty and privilege of seeking out the intellectual 
and educational needs of the people in order to achieve 
that high destiny which was the vision and purpose 
of the founders. 


President Edward Kidder Graham 

This high commission, I receive from the State in a 
spirit of deep and reverent confidence that does not 
spring from any thought of personal resource. If all 
of the wealth of treasured memory and hope that this 
institution represents were an individual responsibility, 
it would be a burden too heavy to be borne ; but this 
great company of her sons, and her kindred, and her 
friends is testimony to the wide and loyal fellowship 
of learning that hedges her securely round about, and 

56 ®f)e Jf unction of tfje ^tate ^nibetsitp 

makes the individual heart strong enough for anything. 
Nor less reassuring, as the standard passes to an un- 
tried hand, is the host of happy thoughts released by 
the presence of those who since the reopening gave 
themselves to her guidance in wisdom and complete 
devotion. To them today the institution pays the per- 
fect tribute of her abundant life that they gave their 
strength to promote : to her latest leader, the architect 
of her material rebuilding, whose wise and patient care 
inwrought into her standard the ideals of modern 
scholarship; to his predecessor, whose sympathetic in- 
sight and statesmanlike vision gave eloquent expres- 
sion to the voiceless aspiration of his people and made 
him their interpreter, both to themselves and to the na- 
tion ; to his predecessor, whose aggressive and brilliant 
leadership performed the essential service of making 
the University a popular right and privilege; to his 
predecessor — the historian of her heroic past, on whose 
heart each syllable of her story is written — who lived 
through a period of bitterness without a hate, who 
endured poverty without a regret, achieved honor 
without pride, and who now so deeply shares the eter- 
nal youth about him that age finds him with a heart so 
young and a life so full of affection and praise that he 
is the witness of his own immortality. 

As the mind dwells on all of this exalted loyalty and 
unselfish devotion, once again persons, even the most 
heroic, fade into the background of the cause that 
evoked their heroisms, and our present ceremonial be- 
comes less the installation of an individual than a 
reverent and passionate dedication of all of us and all 

Cfie Winiiitvsiitp of J^rtfj Carolina 57 

of the energies and powers of all of us to the civiliza- 
tion that the institution exists to serve. 

The life of this institution began with the life of the 
nation itself ; and the period since its rebirth in 1875 
is the great period of national construction. In these 
forty years the nation was caught up in the giant's 
swing of its material release, and through the ex- 
ploitation and development of its natural resources, 
through immigration, invention, industrial combina- 
tion, and commercial expansion constructed a civiliza- 
tion startling and wonderful in the things it fashioned, 
in the type of constructive genius it elicited, in the new 
tyrannies and ideals it evolved. In this notable half- 
century, all America became, in the summarizing 
phrase of Mr. Wells, "one tremendous escape from 
ancient obsessions into activity and making." Its lib- 
erated energies drew from the wealth of the continent 
material achievements and qualities of a sort un- 
matched in the history of civilization, through which 
it became, in its own brave acclaim of conquest and 
creation, "triumphant democracy." 

The section that this institution served was only 
partly affected by this great expansion ; but for it, too, 
the period is more than anything else a period of con- 
struction and making. In the last ten years of the ex- 
istence of this institution before the war, the wealth of 
the South was about one-half that of the whole coun- 
try. In these ten years, its wealth increased one billion 
dollars more than that of New England and the Mid- 
dle States combined. In 1875, when the University 
began its life over again, the whole South was bank- 

58 ^^t Jf unction of tlje ^tate Winihtvsiitv 

In these forty years of material rebuilding it too has 
escaped from ancient obsessions not a few, and has 
won, in patience and fortitude under the austere dis- 
cipline of a fierce, unequal struggle, not only the spir- 
itual compensations of the struggle, but material lib- 
eration that is not a promise but an immediate reality. 
And while it is under the thrill of the prosperity with- 
in its grasp, it is not primarily because in the past ten 
years its bank deposits and the capital invested in its 
manufactures have increased ten fold, that half of the 
nation's exports originate in its ports, that a world 
treasure hidden in its oil, gas, coal, iron, water-power, 
and agriculture makes certain the fact that the next 
great expansion in national life will be here and that 
here will be "the focusing point of the world's com- 
merce" ; the summons that puts the eager and pro- 
phetic tone in Southern life today is the consciousness 
that here under circumstances pregnant with happy 
destiny men will make once more the experiment of 
translating prosperity in terms of a great civilization. 
It is to leadership in this supreme adventure of demo- 
cratic commonwealth building that the universities of 
the South are called, and their real achievements de- 
pend upon the sure intelligence, sympathy and power, 
with which they perform their vital function, and 
make authoritative answer to the compelling question 
of the people as to "what, if anything, in the way of 
clear guidance you have to offer, or must we look to 
another ?" 

An institution to express and minister to the high- 
est aspirations of man was an immediate provision of 
the founders of the first states of the new republic. 

Cfje Wini\)tx^itv of i^rtlj Carolina 59 

It was a part of the organic law of North Carolina, 
and the University of North Carolina was the first of 
the state universities to be chartered, followed quickly 
by those of Georgia and South Carolina. Thev were 
fostered, however, not by the whole people, but by 
groups of devoted men who sought to have them per- 
form for the new country the noble service of the 
historic colleges of the old. It was the author of the 
Declaration of Independence who by faith saw in the 
new country a new civilization with a new philosophy, 
and who saw implicit in that a new institution for its 
realization. Jefferson sought to create in the univer- 
sity of the state an institution that would not only 
through traditional culture values give to the state 
"legislators, and judges . . . and expound the 
principles and structure of government," but would 
also, "harmonize and promote the interests of agricul- 
ture, manufacture and commerce, and by well formed 
views of political economy give free course to public 
industry." In addition to the traditional models then 
existent he advocated an institution that would meet 
all the needs of all of the state, and to this end planned 
courses in manual training, engineering, agriculture, 
horticulture, military training, veterinary surgery, and 
for schools of commerce, manufacturing, and diplom- 
acy, and in the details of its administration he planned 
to keep it flexible and responsive to the people's need. 

But in spite of this splendid programme the state 
university could not come into its own in the South, 
nor for a hundred years be realized anywhere. The 
great American idea that Jefferson conceived had to 
wait until America itself could come into being, and 

60 Cf)e ^function of tije ^tate Wini\itv^itp 

the mission of interpretative leadership passed to other 
hands, as the section which gave it birth lost contact 
with the spirit of national life. 

The evolution of the American state university dur- 
ing the past hundred years is the record of the gradual 
fulfiHing of Jefferson's splendid vision. It represents 
the vital history of the contribution of nineteenth-cen- 
tury America to the progress of mankind. The diffusion 
of wealth and knowledge, geographical and scientific 
discovery, new inventions and new ideals, not only put 
a power and a passion into material making and con- 
struction, but they fashioned institutions of training in 
whatever vocation the all-conquering hand of mater- 
ialism demanded, and these as they developed were 
added to those that other civilizations had created. To 
the institutions that seek to express man's inner life 
and his relations to the past and the fixity of those re- 
lations, it added institutions that interpret his outer 
life, his relation to the present and his infinite capacity 
for progress. It seeks to reassert for present civiliza- 
tion what past civilizations say to America, together 
with what America has to say for itself. Through its 
colleges of liberal arts, pure and applied science, pro- 
fessional and technical schools it repeats the culture 
messages of the prophets of the nineteenth century: 
Arnold's message of sweetness and light; Huxley's 
message of the spirit of inquiry, and Carlyle's message 
of the spirit of work. 

Is this grouping, then, of the college of culture, the 
college of research, the college of vocation into a com- 
partmental organization of efficient and specialized 
parts, supplemented by the idea of centering its energy 

Wi^t Winibtv^it^ of i^ortfj Carolina 6i 

and ingenuity in putting all of its resources directly at 
the service of all the people — is this the ultimate 
thought of this greatest institution of the modern state, 
and is its future to be concerned merely with perfect- 
ing these parts and further extending their utility? 

Culture as learning, science as investigation, and work 
as utility, each has an eternal life of its own, and to 
perfect each of them for the performance of its special 
work will always be an aim of the university. But 
this conception of its function as a university is neces- 
sarily partial and transitional. Tyndall, in his great 
Belfast address made in 1874, points out that it is not 
through science, nor through literature that human 
nature is made whole, but through a fusion of both. 
Through its attempt to make a new fusion of both 
with work during the great constructive years of the 
past half-century, our civilization has caught the im- 
pulse of a new culture center. It is this that the state 
university seeks to express. It is more than an aggre- 
gate of parts. As a university it is a living unity, an 
organism at the heart of the living democratic state, in- 
terpreting its life, not by parts, nor by a summary of 
parts, but wholly, — fusing the functions of brain and 
heart and hand under the power of the immortal spirit 
of democracy as it moves in present American life to 
the complete realization of what men really want. The 
real measure of its power will be whether, discarding 
the irrelevancies of the past and present, it can focus, 
fuse, and interpret their eternal verities and radiate 
them from a new organic center of culture. This, let 
it tentatively define as achievement touched by fine 

62 tS^^t Jf unction of tfie ^tate tinibersiitp 

feeling — as truth alive and at work in the world of 
men and things. 

Such new centers are the vital source of civilization, 
and the propulsive power of progress. Every now and 
then in human history men make a synthesis of their 
ideals, giving redirection and increased projection to 
their energies on new and higher levels of achieve- 
ment. Truly great creative periods thus result from 
the liberation of men through new revelations of 
deeper and richer values in their new relations. Class- 
ical learning gave Europe such a period in the Renais- 
sance; science gave the modern world such a period, 
each expressing itself through a great educational in- 
stitution, typifying the union of past ideals into a new 
center of reality. The American state university of 
the twentieth century is an organism of the produc- 
tive state, striving to express in tangible realities the 
aspirations of present democracy, as it adjusts itself 
to the liberations of a new humanism. 

The evolution of the democratic state in the past 
hundred years as an attempt to actualize in human so- 
ciety the principles of liberty, equality, and brother- 
hood is parallel to that of the state university. Tra- 
ditional ideals and institutions it, too, inherited that 
it could not wilfully discard ; new ideals it, too, as- 
pired to that it could not immediately achieve. Its con- 
tinental task of "construction and making" made the 
production of material values its necessary concern. 
The incarnation of the great anti-feudal power of com- 
merce was inevitable, not only to break the bonds of 
the "ancient obsessions," but to open through its ma- 
terial might railways, steamship lines, canals, tele- 

Wf)t Wini\}tv9iitp of i^ortf) Carolina 63 

graph and telephone systems, good roads, school 
houses and libraries, as avenues to liberation. In 
its development it created its own abnormal stand- 
ards and tyrannies, and became so obsessed with ma- 
terial freedom that equality seemed a contradiction 
and co-operation the vision of a dreamer. Its life 
was individualistic, compartmental, and fiercely com- 
petitive. Its ideal was efficiency; its criterion, divi- 
dends ; but present democracy, if it has not yet fo- 
cused the light of the new center toward which it 
moves, is steadily illumined by it. Democracy has 
come to mean more than an aggregate of vocations, 
grouped for the purpose of material exploitation. The 
whole effort of the productive state is to unify its life, 
not by casting out material good, but by interpreting 
and using it in its symmetrical upbuilding. 

Great progress toward making the state a co- 
operative organism in the equal distribution of all 
the elements of life to all according to their capac- 
ity, has been made in the evolution of business it- 
self. "Business is business" is no longer its ulti- 
mate thought. In perfecting its parts for efficiency 
it discovered, not merely the value of co-operation 
in the individual business, but in the larger aggre- 
gates of material expansion, that the co-operation of 
manufactures, commerce, and agriculture is neces- 
sary to prosperity, and that the weakness of one is 
the weakness of all. It has come to see in addition 
to this extensive unity, an intensive unity in its 
dependence on knowledge, science, and ethics ; and more 
deeply still that the organic center of all of its actions 
and interactions for liberating its efficiency and its life 

64 tKije Jf unction of t^e ^tate ?HnibersJitp 

to a higher level of productivity is in raising the pro- 
ductivity of all of the men engaged in it by liberating 
all of their wholesome faculties. Scientific manage- 
ment, which will in the present century mark as great 
progress in production as the introduction of ma- 
chinery did in the past century, shifts the main em- 
phasis of production from the machine to the worker. 
The new freedom in whatever form — in business, poli- 
tics, religion, and philosophy — is a manifestation of the 
effort of democracy to establish the supremacy of hu- 
man values, and so to make of itself the creative, spir- 
itual organism it must be. From this new center of 
constructive co-operation, it is already in its effort to 
abolish ignorance, poverty, disease, and crime, sending 
confident premonitions of fuller life and new and 
braver reconstructions. The productive democratic 
state would make of itself an organism, by making its 
compartmental life a union of all of its parts, as the 
nation made of the states a territorial union. It would 
perfect the parts through the stronger, fuller life of 
the whole; it would lose none of the good of individual 
initiative and material success, but would translate it 
all into the whole terms of higher human values. It 
cries with the creative joy of spent life renewed: 

"All good things are ours, 
Nor soul helps flesh more 
Than flesh helps soul". 

The state university is the instrument of democracy 
for realizing all of these high and healthful aspirations 
of the state. Creating and pro-created by the state it 
has no immediate part, however, in a specific social 
programme. Its service is deeper and more pervasive. 

Cfie ZHnibersiitp of i^ortf) Carolina 65 

It sees its problem as positive, not negative; as one of 
fundamental health, not of superficial disease. It looks 
on the state as a producer ; not as a policeman. It is 
not so much concerned with doing a certain set of 
things, as infusing the way of doing all things with a 
certain ideal. Not by spasmodic reform, nor by senti- 
ment, nor by the expiations of philanthropy; but by 
understanding, criticism, research and applied knowl- 
edge it would reveal the unity of the channels through 
which life flows, and minister to the purification of its 
currents. It would conceive the present state and all 
of its practical problems as the field of its service, but 
it would free the term service from the narrowing con- 
struction of immediate practice. The whole function 
of education is to make straight and clear the way for 
the liberation of the spirit of men from the tyranny of 
place and time, not by running away from the world, 
but by mastering it. The university would hold to the 
truth of practical education that "no knowledge is worth 
while that is not related to the present life of man; it 
would reject its error that only knowledge of nearby 
things has such a relation" ;it would hold to the truth of 
classical education (I quote) that "things high and far 
away often bestow best control over things that are de- 
tailed and near," and reject its error of concluding that 
because certain things are high and distant they must 
possess that power. It would emphasize the fact that 
research and classical culture rightly interpreted are as 
deeply and completely service as any vocational ser- 
vice ; but it would consider their service too precious to 
be confined in cloisters and sufficiently robust to in- 
habit the walks of men. The whole value of univer- 

66 tKlje Jfunttion ot tfje ^tate ^nibers(itp 

sity extension depends upon the validity of the purity 
and power of the spirit of the truth from which it is 
derived. Extension it would interpret, not as thinly 
stretching out its resources to the state boundaries for 
purposes of protective popularity, nor as carrying 
down to those without the castle gates broken bits of 
learning; but as the radiating power of a new passion, 
carrying in natural circulation the unified culture of 
the race to all parts of the body politic. It would in- 
terpret its service, not as sacrifice; but as life, the 
normal functioning of life as fruitful and fundamental 
as the relation between the vine and the branches. 

It is this organic relation to the democratic state 
that puts the Southern state university at the vital cen- 
ter of the state's formative material prosperity. "What 
are Southern universities doing," asks a great indus- 
trial leader, "to give economic independence to South- 
ern industry?" It is a fair challenge, and the state 
university joyfully acknowledges its obligation fully 
to meet it. It is a part of the business of laboratories 
to function in the productive state by solving the prob- 
lems of embarrassed industry. Science has so faith- 
fully performed this obligation that the main arch of 
modern industry rests on the laboratory. Applied sci- 
ence no less truly rests on pure science and the liber- 
ating currents of the spirit of inquiry and investigation 
that is the vital spark of modern life. The first great 
step in the independence of Southern industry will be 
the realization of its dependence. Our whole electrical 
power liberation, significant now in achievement and 
thrilling in prophecy, is the co-operation of a hundred 
forces, the most important of which is the vital force 

trte Winibtxsiitv of Movtf) Carolina 67 

of unknown investigators whose labor and spirit 
opened the current to the wheels of productive indus- 
try. "If," says Walter Bagehot, "it had not been for 
quiet people who sat still and studied the sections of 
the cone, if other quiet people had not sat still and 
worked out the doctrine of chances ... ; if star 
gazers had not watched long and carefully the mo- 
tions of the heavenly bodies, our modern astronomy 
would have been impossible, and without our as- 
tronomy our ships, our colonies, our seamen, and 
all that makes modern life could not have existed." 
The aniline dye industry of Germany is not the 
product of the clever alchemy of a laboratory merely. 
It is the logical result of a great state replacing 
through its university "by intellectual forces the 
physical forces lost by war." It is the result, too, 
of the fusion with this of industrial statesmanship; 
the result of a mastery of industry's extensive and in- 
tensive relations in economic law, foreign commerce, 
science, and diplomacy. "Foreign trade," says the 
Secretary of Commerce, "begins inside a man's head, 
in the shape of knowledge of the country to which he 
would sell, — its customs, finances, language, weights, 
measures and business methods." The state university 
would make clear the fact that in its relation to South- 
ern industry, while it regards every practical need as 
an opportunity for service, its still larger service is in 
making clear the relations that radiate from industry 
in concentric fields of knowledge that either enslave it 
if they are not understood, or liberate it in ever in- 
creasing life and power if they are understood. And 
their chief liberation is the setting free of the master of 

68 Cije ^function of tfie ^tate Winihttiitp 

industry himself. All industry that is worthy of ab- 
sorbing a man's life is in the grasp of world re- 
lations and under the grim test of world standards. 
Any work that does evoke a man's full faculties in 
mastering its relations is worthy work. So it is the 
function of the university, not merely to bring its re- 
sources to bear in solving practical problems of in- 
dustry and discovering through its inner relations the 
field of Southern industry as a field of statesmanship, 
but in discovering thereby the further truth that in 
perfecting its relations it becomes a liberal vocation in 
saving the man and all of his higher faculties, not from 
business, but through business. Salvation will come 
there or nowhere. The question for Southern in- 
dustry is whether in the world opportunity that opens 
ahead, it will attempt the futile experiment of becom- 
ing big through superficial and selfish efficiency, or 
whether through a mastery of all of its relations, 
while becoming big it will also become great. 

One of the belated visions of Southern business and 
educational statesmanship is that we can have here no 
full prosperity or civilization unless agriculture is 
made truly productive. In our individualistic, political 
and economic life we have flattered it, ignored it, or ex- 
ploited it. We have lately awakened to the fact that it 
is an almost dead center at the heart of Southern prog- 
ress, and we have had the vision that it is our function 
to co-operate with it fully and wholly. It is inevitable 
that society's need will make farming efficient as a 
business. In bringing this about one of two processes 
is possible: that it be developed as other great busi- 
nesses are, with routine skilled labor under captains of 

tirije Wim\itviiitv of J^rtfi Carolina 69 

industry ; or that it be made a liberal human vocation, 
each farm home the center of a whole and wholesome 
life, and perfecting the development of a definite and 
complete civilization. What will make it realize its 
higher destiny will not be a limited view of it as a 
manual vocation. It is a manual vocation, and as such 
should be trained to the highest human efficiency as a 
producer of wealth. It must be more deeply inter- 
preted, however, if it is to attract and hold men of 
energy and initiative. In its relation to nature, to the 
applied sciences, to economics, and the social sciences 
agriculture has relations that put it on the full current 
of the forces that make for human culture through 
right relations to it as work by evoking, not only pros- 
perity from the soil, but the higher faculties of the 
man himself, — making of the cropper, the farmer ; 
and of the farmer, man-on-the-farm. 

The reality of the state university's power to liberate 
the faculties and aspirations of the workers in the pro- 
ductive state depends on the force of that power as 
generated in it as an association of teachers and stu- 
dents, given wholly to the pursuit of truth and free 
from the distractions of making a living. The heart 
of this association, the college of liberal arts and sci- 
ences, has as its mission now as always to reveal 
the full meaning of life in its broad and general re- 
lations, and to fix in the heart of its youth a point of 
outlook on the field of human endeavor from which to 
see it clearly and to see it whole. It fears no criticism 
based on an interpretation of its mission as "imprac- 
tical" ; but it does regard as fatal any failure to evoke 
the best powers of its own student body. President 

70 Kf)t Jf unction of t^e ^tate ?Hnibersiitj» 

Wilson has spoken of present undergraduate life as 
"a non-conducting medium" of intellectual discipline, 
and President Pritchett sums up all possible condem- 
nation when he says that it is an organization where 
conditions within are such that success in the things 
for which it stands no longer appeals to those within 
it. Failure to appeal may not be laid to the curricu- 
lum, nor the spirit of youth, nor to the spirit of the age. 
The things for which it stands in the mastery of 
fact, the mastery of method, and in spiritual tone will 
come not because they are latent in Greek or in phy- 
sics; but because they are made luminous there 
through a revelation of the broad and liberal relations 
of these studies to the life curiosities of the student. 
A course in Greek may be as narrowing and as blight- 
ing to a thirsty spirit as a dissertation in mediaeval the- 
ology; a liberal arts curriculum at its conclusion may 
be in the mind of the young graduate not more impres- 
sively unified and tangible than the wreckage of a once 
passionate contest between literature and science. The 
line of memory and repetition is the line of least re- 
sistance to student and teacher as it is in the dead rou- 
tine of every field of effort; but the liberal arts course 
is not a mechanical contrivance for standardizing the 
crude material fed to it. It is the life history of the 
human spirit and its wonderful adventures in the 
world, unrolled to the eye of aspiring youth setting 
out on its wonderful adventure. For this great busi- 
ness of touching the imagination and stirring the soul 
to original activity, no formulas nor technique how- 
ever conscientious will serve. For liberal training to 
make its connections, eager sympathetic interpreta- 

Cfje Wini\}txfiitp of i^ortf) Carolina 7i 

tion is necessary, "with thought like an edge of steel 
and desire like a flame." From the center of every sub- 
ject runs the vital current of its inner meaning, and 
from all subjects in the curriculum in converging lines 
to the heart of our present civilization and its culture 
message. Intellectual discipline, special insights, and 
"success in the thing for which it stands" will appeal 
to those within, not by means of new subjects added 
with the thought of gaining interest nor by repeating 
the assertion that the old subjects ought to have cultural 
appeal, but by having the thing for which it stands 
radiantly and constantly clear to itself and the touch- 
stone of its activities. It is the incarnation in the in- 
dividual of the spirit of the institution as it focuses 
and reflects the inmost message of the age. This is the 
source of the student's special insights, his scent for 
reality, and their fruitage is that productive thinking 
that is the supreme test of the college. 

The association of teacher and student in the profes- 
sional schools must have the same unifying point of 
view. Widely separated as the professional schools 
are in subject matter, they have not only a common 
scientific method and spirit in their pursuit, but a com- 
mon culture center in their larger human relations. 
Arnold conceived of the professional training given at 
Cornell in the making of engineers and architects as an 
illustration of what culture is not. The criterion of the 
American state university is not a matter of the voca- 
tion ; but whether in making the student efiicient in his 
vocation it has focused through his studies its own 
inner light so as to liberalize him as a member of 
democratic society. It is not the function of the uni- 

72 ^U Jf ttttttion of tije ^tate ^nibersit? 

versity to make a man clever in his profession merely. 
That is a comparatively easy and negligible university 
task. It is also to make vivid to him through his pro- 
fession his deeper relations — not merely proficiency in 
making a good living, but productivity in living a 
whole life. The professions of law, medicine, the 
ministry, journalism, commerce, and the rest are es- 
sential to the upbuilding of a democratic common- 
wealth ; but they must be interpreted not as adventures 
in selfish advancement ; but as enterprises in construc- 
tive statesmanship, liberating both the state and the 
man. It is the function of the university, not only to 
train men in the technique of law, but to lift them to a 
higher level of achievement by making them living 
epistles of social justice ; not only to make clever prac- 
titioners of medicine, but to lift them into conserva- 
tors of the public health; not merely to train teachers 
in the facts and the methods of education, but to fire 
them with the conviction that they are the productive 
creators of a new civilization. 

It recognizes no antagonist in this immortal business 
but ignorance. Ignorance it conceives as the unpar- 
donable sin of a democracy and on it in every form it 
would wage relentless warfare. To this end it would 
unify and co-ordinate its whole system of public edu- 
cation in a spiritual union of elementary schools and 
secondary schools, of agricultural and mechanical and 
normal colleges, of private and denominational schools 
and colleges, all as a means to the end of the great 
commonwealth for which men have dreamed and died 
but scarcely dared to hope. Fully conscious of the 
confusions of prejudice and the blind unreason of self- 

W^t Wini\itxiitv of i^rtfj Carolina 73 

interest and greed, it is even more conscious of the 
curative powers of the democratic state and its in- 
domitable purpose to be wholly free. So it would 
enlist all vocations and all professions in a compre- 
hensive, state- wide programme of achieving as a prac- 
tical reality Burke's conception of the state as "a part- 
nership in all science, a partnership in all art, a partner- 
ship in every virtue and in all perfection, and since 
such a partnership cannot be attained in one genera- 
tion, a partnership between all those who are living, 
and those who are dead, and those who are yet un- 

This is the understanding of the meaning of life 
which represents the highest level to which men of our 
civilization have attained — the highest good at which 
the state aims. The religious perception of our time 
in its widest application is the consciousness that our 
well-being, both material and spiritual, lies in in- 
telligent co-operation. The state university in its sym- 
pathetic study of relations that reconcile the divisions 
of society, while not concerned with the differences in 
religious organization, is inevitably and profoundly 
concerned with religion itself. All of its study of men 
and things leads through the co-operating channels that 
connect them beyond the sources of immediate life to 
the one great unity that binds all together. The human 
mind, whatever its achievement, in whatever fields of 
endeavor, "with the yearning of a pilgrim for its home, 
will still turn to the Mystery from which it emerged, 
seeking to give unity to work and thought and faith." 
The state university in its passionate effort to fashion 
this unity into a commonwealth of truly noble propor- 

74 Wbt ^function of t^e B>Mt ?Hnibergitj> 

tions of work and worth and worship, reverently prays 
as it follows the star of its faith : "Oh God, I think 
Thy thoughts after Thee." 

Such is the covenant of our immortal mother "with 
those who are living and those who are dead and those 
who are yet unborn," "building herself from im- 
memorial time as each generation kneels and fights and 
fades." She will hold secure her priceless heritage 
from her elder sons as the pledge of the faith she 
keeps ; and she will cherish the passionate loyalty of 
her latest issue with the sacred pride that only a 
mother knows ; she will seek guidance above the con- 
fusion of voices that cry out paths of duty around her, 
in the experience of the great of her kind the world 
over; but she will not, in self -contemplation and imi- 
tation, lose her own creative power and that original 
genius that alone gives her value in the world. As the 
Alma Mater of the living State and all of its higher 
aspirations she would draw from it the strength that 
is as the strength of its everlasting hills and give an- 
swer in terms of whole and wholesome life as fresh as 
the winds of the world that draw new life from its 
pine-clad plains. Eager, sympathetic, unafraid and 
with the understanding heart "she standeth on the top 
of the high places, by the way in the places of the path ; 
she crieth out at the entry of the city, at the coming 
in at the doors : 'Unto you, O men, I call and my voice 
is to the sons of men.' " 

Wtit WinMxiitv of ^ortf) Carolina 75 



President George H. Denny, oe the University 
OE Alabama 

On behalf of the state universities of the nation I am 
glad to bring to the University of North Carolina and 
to its great new servant a message of congratulation 
and good v^ill. This impressive function has meant to 
many of us an opportunity of making a pilgrimage for 
the first time to this charming spot. 

There is something quite distinctive in the atmos- 
phere of this place and in the life of this institution. 
Chapel Hill is an honored name in the history of our 
American academic life. Wherever that name is pro- 
nounced, it carries w^ith it the suggestion of high pur- 
pose and of unw^avering regard to spiritual values. 

I congratulate your new^ leader that he is to do his 
day's work on this campus where sincere educational 
practice has from the beginning prevailed. There may 
be, in your college administration, room for improve- 
ment in many directions and for a higher order of 
efficiency in many things ; but there is one thing with 
reference to this institution which, despite all its lim- 
itations and all its shortcomings, may be said without 
fear of contradiction, namely, that its work is abso- 
lutely genuine and its ideals absolutely correct. 

It is true that the University of North Carolina, in 
common with the other tax-supported universities of 
the South, has never known the exhiliration of material 
wealth. It is true that she has struggled on, through 

76 W^t Jf unction of tfje ^tate ?Hnibersiit^ 

periods of inconceivable hardship, shouting from every 
housetop of opportunity and desire, "Silver and gold 
have I none." That era, however, has passed into 
history. Today we salute her and bid her God-speed 
as she stands serene upon the mount of faith and op- 

I congratulate you. North Carolinians, that one of 
your own sons, a student in your own University and 
subsequently a student elsewhere, has after a series in 
faithful service been called to direct your foremost 
seat of learning. Having siunmoned him to this great 
task, who will dare to deny to him the sympathy and 
co-operation of a single man who loves this institution 
and is striving to keep its commandments ? 

Here let me add that it is no easy task that President 
Graham is today formally assuming. Some of us here 
can bear testimony to the fact that it is a task that de- 
mands courage and patience and steadfastness and de- 
votion. Some months ago one of my friends was be- 
ing inaugurated president of the University of Ar- 
kansas. President Lovett of Texas was delivering the 
address of greeting. With some feeling he repeated 
the famous dictum of Jowett, "Never retract, never 
explain, get the thing done, let them howl." A 
former president of this institution once said that the 
only type of college president who makes no mistakes 
is the type that cunningly succeeds in doing nothing. 

No intelligent man will dare question the outstanding 
fact that the University of North Carolina has minis- 
tered to the intellectual and spiritual life of this com- 
monwealth with a rare devotion and an unremitting 
loyalty. Who can measure the height and the depth 

etc ^Hnibergitp of ^rtfi Carolina 77 

of that service? It has strengthened and sustained 
and glorified the very fabric of your civiHzation. With- 
out it the most splendid chapters of your history could 
never have been written. Without it the remarkable 
educational awakening that has within a generation at- 
tracted national attention to this State could never 
have been realized. Are you striving to establish a 
great school system in North Carolina? Hearken to 
the words of Benjamin H. Hill : "Education is like 
water; to fructify, it must descend." 

Just one word more: I desire here and now to ex- 
press the sense of gratitude that springs up in my heart 
as I bear testimony to the great service that this insti- 
tion has rendered and is rendering in this entire South- 
ern country. May it continue to have a rich reward ! 
May the years to come clothe it with majesty and 
power ! 


President Wili.iam J. Martin, oe Davidson College 

Speaking at the bidding of the Committee of Ar- 
rangements, for the colleges of our State I felicitate 
you. President Graham, on the honors which are today 
formally bestowed upon you. That you will wear them 
worthily you have abundantly demonstrated. That 
they are well deserved your friends will avow. As stu- 
dent, teacher, dean, and president in this institution, 
you have filled so worthily and fully each lower po- 
sition that your call to higher service comes quite 

You will not forget, and I doubt not it has been al- 

78 Cfje Jf unction of tfje Matt Winihttiitp 

ready pressed home upon you, that the honors of the 
position are necessarily associated with heavy respon- 
sibihties. It is not a bed of roses, where you lie; but 
it is a splendid vantage ground for service, self-sacri- 
ficing and uplifting. There is no reserve in my belief 
that you will measure up to the requirements of your 
exalted position. 

The colleges of this state are most of them denomi- 
national in character supported by private funds. They 
are, however, as much a part of the educational life 
and work of the State as is this institution. As their 
spokesman I bring their sincerest good will to the 
University and a hearty congratulation to the author- 
ities on their ability to find among their faculty a 
worthy successor of a noble line of University Presi- 
dents, two of whom still serve the University, one, 
Dr. Battle, the personal friend of my father, once a 
professor here, the other your immediate predecessor, 
Dr. Venable, whose friendship and kindly counsel I 
prize most highly. Mr. President, your co-workers in 
the building of manhood and in the training of true 
leadership within and for the State rejoice with you 
and the friends of the University over its notable past, 
its present efficiency, and the larger promise for use- 
fulness in the future. 

Education is a much abused term and we are at war 
over educational standards and values. If, however, 
we can amid it all remember that our chief concern in 
College and University is to develop manliness, an 
earnest desire for truth, and a passion for unselfish 
service, we shall not go far astray. For the attain- 
ment of such ends we can all unite, with the assurance 

tE^te Wini\)tv9iitp of ^ortfj Carolina 79 

that the product will never be a drug on the market. 
The world has always had use for a man. True, self- 
forgetful leadership, of high intellectual order, and 
Christian in character was never more needed in the 
world at large than now, and the immediate future 
will see a largely increased demand for America's 
product of this kind and character. Your brethren 
will confidently expect that this institution, born with 
our independence, cradled in the pioneer days of the 
republic, suffering with the lost but well loved Con- 
federacy, and now, with our united country, upon a 
rising tide of progress, will, under your guidance, sir, 
yield its full share of service to the State and nation. 
We wish you and the University the richest blessings 
of the coming years. 


Dr. James Y. Joyner, Superintendent oe Public 

You will observe. Ladies and Gentlemen, that I ad- 
dress first the new President. This was not by acci- 
dent, but from deliberate purpose, for henceforth in 
this place in the hearts of all sons of this University, 
the name of our new President shall lead all the rest in 
honor, love and loyalty. 

The first constitution of this free State adopted in 
1776, in the very decree for their creation, bound in 
indissoluble union the public schools "for the con- 
venient instruction of youth" and the University "for 
the encouragement and promotion of all useful learn- 

80 Wi}t Jf unction of tfie ^tate Wim\}tx9iitp 

Representing 778,000 children of the North Caro- 
lina public schools, I bring greetings on this epoch- 
marking day to the new President of this century-old 
University. As the head of one organic part of a great 
State's educational system, I bring a message of good 
will and hope and cheer to the head of another or- 
ganic part of that system who is this day inaugurated 
worthy successor of a long line of distinguished and 
devoted predecessors, and fortunate heir to their suc- 
cessful labors. 

As parts of an organic whole, the vitality and ef- 
fectiveness of one part of this educational system are 
largely dependent upon the vitality and effectiveness 
of the other, each must strengthen the other and each 
must serve the other. 

You can measure the power, the progress, the pros- 
perity of existing states and nations by the standards, 
efficiency, and extent of their educational systems. The 
highest standards, the most efficient and extensive edu- 
cational systems are found in states and nations that 
endow and maintain the greatest universities. 

Upon this lovely hill among these stately groves 
more than a century ago, our forefathers set up this 
light of learning. Through the long years it has been 
shining here in beauty and in benediction, throwing 
its beams into the remotest corners of the State and 
far out into other states, kindling kindred lights in 
myriads of hamlets and homes and schools, brighten- 
ing and broadening the lives of multitudes of men. 

Into your keeping, Mr. President, has been com- 
mitted this light. Under your watchful care, may it 

W^t Wini^txiitv of i^ortfj Carolina si 

shine on through the years to come with a farther, 
brighter, steadier, whiter Hght. 

From the keepers of the lesser Hghts of learning in 
eight thousand public schools, I bring you assurance 
of hearty co-operation in the performance of your 
noble task and express for them the confident belief 
that they shall receive increased and ever increasing 
stimulation and inspiration from this University under 
your guidance. 


George Stephens, of the Class op 1896 

In one of his notable addresses Phillips Brooks made 
the statement that the most inspiring thing in the 
world to him was to see a high-minded, capable man 
successfully grapple with some problem of vital con- 
sequence to his day and generation. We are here to- 
day to celebrate just that sort of an inspiring fact. A 
man has been called to a great task, and one worthy 
of his powers. He comes not as a last hope to a failing 
cause but rather as a worthy follower of predecessors 
whose very success adds to the responsibility which he 
assumes. But in this greatness of responsibility lies 
greatness of opportunity. While the builders of this 
institution have wrought with prophetic vision they 
have "builded better than they knew," and have had a 
large part in the up-building of a great commonwealth. 
Through the education of the youth of the State this 
University has poured out into the life of both State 
and nation a constant stream of power and influence. 
As a result, vast new forces have arisen ; and to mar- 

82 Wf)t jFunction of tfie ^tate Wini^itxsiitv 

shal these forces, interpret their deeper meaning and 
give them proper direction is a fine, big task. 

The man whom we particularly honor today has not 
only caught this vision of service but has demonstrated 
that here, fitted to their hands and ready for use, is the 
efficient instrument by which a State shall come into a 
better and larger life. He has said "Your University 
shall serve you." The response has been instant and 
positive, and through the simplest and most natural 
methods results have been reached that immeasurably 
enrich the lives of those whom this institution was es- 
tablished to serve. Thus : Do the farmers of a given 
locality or county want to know why there is so little 
income on their labor and investment? The Univer- 
sity causes an economic survey to be made and sets 
forth, with blue-print accuracy, the causes and the 
remedy. Is there need to stimulate public interest in 
education? High school debates are arranged, five 
thousand boys and girls participate under a well-order- 
ed plan, and fifty thousand citizens of the State hear 
them. Result, a quickened sense of the meaning of 
public education and a corresponding forward step in 
good citizenship. "Ask here" is the word that has 
gone forth. But in answering, there goes out from 
this institution something more than mere cold statis- 
tics from a clearing house of information. The ear- 
nestness and zeal of those who labor here are also im- 
parted, and the fresh and stirring qualities of inspira- 
tion put ordinary facts in their larger relations. 

Men are made to know that the new road to be built 
out yonder in the mountains means more than a high- 
way with good traction, compensated curves, and bal- 

tlTfje Wini\itv&itv ot i^rtfi Carolina 83 

anced grades. It will also stimulate school attendance 
and church going, and make easier those active and in- 
timate social relations so necessary to the development 
of commuity life. Economic values are only part of 
the gain ; spiritual values are there also. 

This masterly power to direct and inspire, combined 
with the vision that gives spiritual interpretation to 
the commonplace, puts a new quality into patriotism 
and tends to make culture a common heritage. 

Mr. President : Throughout the length and breadth 
of this land, and in lands beyond the seas, are over 
five thousand loyal alumni for whom I am privileged 
to stand, in whose name I speak. There are those, 
some of whom are present, whose service to the Uni- 
versity may be counted by the half century. Through 
them will flow into you inspiration from the rich tra- 
ditions of the past. Others, well past the meridian of 
life but workers still, will bring to you the counsel of 
ripened experience in terms of present day activities. 
And here is a vast throng that I shall designate as 
those belonging to your own generation; for them I 
shall say this, that with you, shoulder to shoulder and 
heart to heart, we ask to have a working part in the 
task that you have so auspiciously begun. In spirit 
those who are absent and in person those who are 
here, share with you the joy of this notable occasion, 
when so distinguished a company has gathered to speak 
earnest words of greeting in fitting recognition of the 
great honor that has come to you. The occasion hon- 
ors, too, our Alma Mater. Her life has been your life, 
you know her needs, her problems, her opportunities. 
And now your strength, which has become her 

84 Wi}t Jf unction of tfje ^tate Winihtt&it]^ 

strength, will find infinite renewal in the knowledge 
you have of her greatness. To you and to our Dear 
Mother, I bring afifectionate greetings from the alum- 
ni, your brothers and her sons, and here and now we 
pledge anew to you and to her our loyalty, deeper and 
more sincere today by reason of the inspiring vision 
of her future that your leadership has already giv- 
en us. 


Thomas CallEndine Boushall, of the Class oe 1915 

In greeting our new president, it is the happy privi- 
lege of the student body not to make vain prophecies 
of this propitious occasion, for we have had the pleas- 
ure of operating under his administration for almost 
two years. In that time we have witnessed a wonder- 
ful growth of enthusiasm among the students ; a far- 
reaching extension of the University beyond the cam- 
pus walls ; an unmatched spirit of co-operation be- 
tween students and faculty. 

There are two secrets of his administration which I 
feel at liberty to mention. 

In the very beginning he assured us of our right to 
the exercise of the utmost freedom. This would have 
been disastrous had he not at the same time come 
among us with teachings of the highest ideals ; with an 
example of gentlemanly conduct and standards of 
Christian character. 

He has given us here the freedom of the simplest 
democracy and he has preserved the organization by 

Wi)t Wini^itviitv of i^ortfj Carolina 85 

teaching us to appreciate, accept and truly bear our 
higher responsibihties. 

The second secret is his democratic co-operation. 
University freedom would have meant chaos if autoc- 
racy had been the order of the administration, but his 
method has been co-operation; his attitude sympa- 
thetic; his aim the fulfilment of a common purpose. 

In the wonderful extension of the University over 
the State, Mr. Graham asked for the organization of 
the students into county clubs for personal work; 
while the administration crystallized the work in send- 
ing out literature and lecturers. Thus the adminis- 
tration and the students made university extension. 

There is no hazing here today, not because we fear 
punishment from the administration, nor for fear of 
infringing recent laws, but because each student has 
been taught to hold the fair name of the University in 
reverence and its good reputation as his own. 

Free democracy and sympathetic co-operation are 
the secrets by which he has won our hearts and our 
love ; by which he has inspired us to the desire to 
strive for the higher and more complete ministering of 
the University to the needs of the State, and of pro- 
ducing the highest type of man to serve the State. 
No man, under his administration, will go out from 
the shadow of these walls, from the shade of these 
trees, and the walks of this campus without a broader 
view of life; a higher conception of his duty to his 
God, his fellow-man and his State; and a deeper at- 
tachment for those imbued with the spirit of de- 

To offer our loyalty to our new president is super- 

86 Wf)t Jf unction of tfje ^tate ?Hnitiergitp 

fluous : he has won it. To pledge our support is but a 
form, for we have accepted him as our leader. To 
assure him of our affection is to question the love of 
brothers. To rejoice upon this happy occasion is but 
natural, and to express our happiness is a task of poets 
— inspired and of laureate fame. 


Dean Lucius PotK McGehee, of the School of Law 

It is my privilege, Mr. President, on this occasion, 
in the name of the Faculty of the University, to con- 
gratulate you upon your formal induction into the 
presidency, and to pledge to you the loyal support and 
hearty co-operation of the Faculty in carrying out the 
plans which I know lie near your heart for the devel- 
opment of the University and rendering it in a fuller 
sense the head of the official system of education in 
the State. 

I speak of "your formal induction into the presi- 
dency," but your administration does not begin today. 
For almost two years as acting president and as presi- 
dent the large opportunities and grave responsibilities 
of guiding the fortunes of the University have rested 
upon you. During that time the steady growth of the 
institution has been maintained — a growth not in num- 
bers alone but in the affections of the people and in 
usefulness to the State. 

Much of this is due to your wise administration and 
effective initiative, and much is due also to the spirit 
of the time. A fine sense of mutual helpfulness and 
responsibility is affecting every department of our 

tKte Winiiitvsiitv of ^ortt Carolina 87 

common life throughout State and nation. It strength- 
ens the inner spirit of the University ; it permeates its 
activities ; it is reflected in the kindly sympathies of 
those beyond our walls. 

In the century and a quarter of its existence, the 
University has experienced many times of trial when 
your predecessors had need of strong hearts and all 
their faith in the institution and the great cause it rep- 
resents. They did their work well and bravely, and 
today, in a happier time, on the threshold of your ad- 
ministration, we stand in a springtime of promise with 
larger capacities for service and greater responsibil- 
ities than ever before. But each new period brings its 
own new difficulties, and no one knows so well as you, 
Mr. President, the grave nature of the problems which 
confront us. 

To solve these problems in accordance with the new 
spirit of the age, to harmonize the essential aristoc- 
racy of scholarship and letters with the democratic 
ideals which befit the university of a republican state, 
to extend the benefits of the University in an ever 
widening circle among all our citizens and to bring 
home to them helpfully the results of the scholarship 
and research cultivated here, above all, to foster 
among the eager young men assembled about us ideals 
of genuine scholarship, true manhood, and helpful 
citizenship — such seem to be some of the tasks which 
lie before the University and its Faculty. 

The trustees have wisely selected to direct in these 
tasks a man in the early prime of intellectual strength, 
imbued with the newer spirit of the age, an alumnus 

88 Cl)e Jf unction of tfje ^tate ^nibersiiti* 

of the institution lovingly familiar with its special 

That your administration, so happily begun, may be 
long and prosperous is the heartfelt wish of your as- 
sociates of the Faculty, who stand ready with you to 
contribute the best that is in them to a larger, fuller 
life for the University. 


Bishop Edward Rondthai<er, of the Moravian Church 

The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make 
His face to shine upon you and be gracious unto you ; 
the Lord lift up His countenance upon you and give 
you peace; in the name of Jesus. Amen. 

Wfnt Wini^tvUitp oi i^rtlj Carolina 89 


After the morning exercises in Memorial Hall were 
formally concluded with the singing of the University 
Hymn and the invocation by Bishop Edward Rond- 
thaler of the Moravian Church, the delegates and 
guests of the University were entertained at a luncheon 
in the new Commons, Swain Hall, at two o'clock. A 
seven course luncheon was served, covers being laid 
for six hundred people. The central section of the 
hall was reserved for the delegates from other insti- 
tutions and the faculty of the University. 

At the toastmaster's table were seated the Hon. 
Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, Toastmaster ; 
Governor Locke Craig ; President Graham ; Dr. Kemp 
P. Battle, Dr. Edwin A. Alderman, and Dr. F. P. 
Venable — former presidents of the University of 
North Carolina; President Frank J. Goodnow, of 
Johns Hopkins University; Miss Marion Reilly, Dean 
of Bryn Mawr College; Hon. Francis D. Winston, of 
the Board of Trustees; Bishop Edward Rondthaler, 
of the Moravian Church; Dr. J. Y. Joyner, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction; President William T. 
Martin, of Davidson College; and President George 
H. Denny, of the University of Alabama. Preced- 
ing the serving of the last course of the luncheon, 
the Toastmaster happily welcomed the guests, brought 
greetings from the president of the United States to 
the new president of the University, and inaugurated 
a round of genial and whole-souled speech-making 
which delighted the assembled audience until the con- 
clusion of the occasion at half-past five o'clock. 

90 tlCfje Jf unction of tte ^tate Wini\)tv^ity 


The Toastmaster prefaced his own remarks and his 
introduction of the speakers, by delivering in a most 
happy fashion the message of greetings which he 
brought from President Wilson to President Graham. 
His opening remarks were felicitous : "I am a col- 
lege president myself," he said, "and I come here today 
not as an editor, but as a president, to bring to this 
company the greetings of the great university of the 
United States Navy. When I hear these distinguished 
gentlemen talk about their great universities, I am sur- 
prised that they should call them great, when I am 
president of a university of 60,000 students !" 

Secretary Daniels then read a telegram from Dr. 
George Winston, former president of the University, 
who was prevented by illness from attending the in- 

"I am with you today in spirit, rejoicing over the 
growth of the State and the University. I propose the 
following toast : THE OLD NORTH STATE : May 
each generation find her a better State to live in, with 
larger freedom of soul and wider mental horizon ; and 
may this happy evolution be achieved in the future as 
in the past by her noble University!" 


Governor Craig, the next speaker, brought an in- 
spiring message to the University. After speaking of 
the business depression throughout the State owing 
to the war, he went on : "And yet the last legislature 
appropriated more towards the sustaining of the Uni- 

Cfje ?Hnitjergit? of ^ortt Carolina 9i 

versity than any legislature has ever appropriated. It 
shows that our people are beginning to realize that the 
highest destiny of the State cannot be worked out in 
industry and in the making of money alone, but that 
the accumulation of money and the development of 
industry is all a failure unless it is inspired by the high 
and noble ideals that must emanate from this Univer- 
sity and other institutions of learning. It is with these 
institutions to discover the alchemy that shall trans- 
form all industrial progress and all material growth 
into moral and intellectual progress and moral and 
intellectual growth. The school-teacher has done more 
to propagate the altruistic spirit in government than 
any president of this great country. That is a part of 
the destiny of this University, and the people of North 
Carolina are beginning to realize it. They may not 
have as many students or as big guns as Mr. Daniels' 
university, but it is not guns, or numbers, but men 
that count. This old State has waked up, and when- 
ever you get her aroused, she is aroused in earnest, and 
she is not going to stop until this University is put in 
a position to attain her destiny. All hail to this day in 
North Carolina !" 


The oldest ex-president of the University, Dr. Kemp 
P. Battle, followed, speaking in his usual humorous 
and reminiscent fashion. "Being called on to follow 
the Secretary of the Navy and the Governor of the 
State has so turned my head that I do not know where 
I stand. I do not know what role to assume or what 
kind of a speech to make, so I concluded that I would 
take that of an humble discoverer. You may think 

92 tlTije Jf unction of tije ^tate Wini\itviitp 

that a pretty lofty one, but I assure you it is not. We 
say Columbus was a great discoverer. He tried to go 
to China — he stopped at the West Indies. But my 
discoveries have been of the brains of great men." 
Describing his meeting in Asheville, at the age of 
eighteen with a young man the same age, he said : "I 
found him possessed of wonderful wit and acquaint- 
ance with the great classics — the Bible, Shakspere, and 
Scott's novels. His name had never been heard east 
of the Blue Ridge. I reported to my friends in Chapel 
Hill that a great man was growing up in the West." It 
was Zebulon Baird Vance. Continuing his narrative 
of discovery. Dr. Battle said: "A few years ago I 
heard that a young assistant professor had come to 
town. He had a name much honored in North Caro- 
lina and elsewhere, and as he was nephew of a valued 
friend of mine, with whom I had been often thrown as 
a co-fighter for education, Alex. Graham, I called on 
him at once. ... I found an acuteness of intel- 
lect, varied learning, advanced and wise views of 
educational, economic and other needs of our people, 
together with thoughtful and clear utterance, and 
rare courtesy of manner. I saw that the young man 
was presidential timber." It was Edward Kidder 
Graham. "Now, Mr. Chairman!" exclaimed Dr. Bat- 
tle, "Was not I a discoverer?" 


Dr. Venable brought the greetings of the past execu- 
tive to the present : "I rejoice to see this day. I re- 
joice in behalf of my dear friend, the staunch and loyal 
supporter of my administration, Edward Kidder Gra- 
ham. I rejoice on my own behalf, for the burden of 

W^t ?S[niber£Sitj> of i^ort!) Carolina 93 

responsibility and care which had grown too heavy for 
my strength is now rolled off. I rejoice in behalf of 
the University for I see before it from this day a 
growth and development and increase of usefulness 
which no prophet here can measure or place limitations 

Dr. Venable then contrasted the University of the 
past and the present. He recalled the fact that 35 
years ago there were only 150 students here, but "out 
of this small number came our honored Toastmaster, 
the Governor of the State, a President of the Uni- 
versity here, our Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
a Bishop of the Episcopal Church, and Aycock and 
Mclver who have gone on before." Dr. Venable 
stated that he was proud of the fact that only three 
other men had exceeded his length of service, and that 
in six years more he would hold the record of the 
longest continuous service in the University. He ex- 
pressed his gratitude to the people of the State that 
the opportunity of serving the State had been granted 
him, since more of the youth of the State had been 
entrusted to his care than to any other professor. 

Dr. Venable concluded by propounding a conun- 
drum to Secretary Daniels : "Where would our Toast- 
master's big university be if this University had not 
supplied the president of it ?" 

(Secretary Daniels: "Better than that, this Uni- 
versity educated James K. Polk, who as president of 
the United States established a Naval Academy at 

94 Wi)t Jf wnction of t^e ^tate Wini\itv^itv 


Dr. Miller brought greetings on behalf of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society. He offered "congratulations to 
Dr. Edward Graham on his elevation to the presidency 
of the University of North Carolina; to Dr. Charles 
Herty on his election to the presidency of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society; and to Dr. Francis Venable on 
recovering his liberty after many years of devoted 
service to the State. Dr. Miller was the bearer of 
official greetings from the President of the University 
of Toronto. "May I hope, sir," he said in conclu- 
sion, "that this first official communication between 
these institutions may not be the last, for though sepa- 
rated by many miles and situated in very different sur- 
roundings, the two universities are pursuing the same 
ideals, by the same businesslike and efficient methods." 


Miss Reilly, who was accorded a particularly cor- 
dial reception, brought greetings from Bryn Mawr and 
from the women's colleges of the country. "All our 
educational institutions," she said, "are so closely 
bound together that in congratulating you we seem 
also to congratulate ourselves on the long historical 
past of this University and on the splendid future that 
is before it. In the original act authorizing this Uni- 
versity there is a very wise sentence : 'It is the duty 
of every legislator to consult the happiness of the ris- 
ing generation.' The legislatures and authorities have 
most surely succeeded in carrying out this duty. All 
the tribute which has been paid today, all the history 
which has been told, show that the University has con- 

Cfje ^niberfiiitp of Movtf) Carolina 95 

suited the happiness of the generations that have 


Dr. C. Alphonso Smith deHvered the congratula- 
tions of the Modern Language Association. "The 
thought that has been increasingly with me from the 
very beginning of these exercises, is that the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina has today not only inaugu- 
rated a new president but inaugurated a new and wider 
educational policy. The very concept of the state uni- 
versity as an educational agency is undergoing a sea- 
change to something richer and rarer. The strangest 
fact presented by the history of education in the 
South, is, to my mind the slow evolution of the state 
university as a distinct kind of university. This evo- 
lution can best be studied in the South because the 
South originated the state university idea." He then 
sketched the progress of the idea through three stages. 
The first he called the 'pinnacle' or aristocratic theory ; 
the second the 'keystone' theory, marking the first step 
in the democratization of education by making the uni- 
versity the keystone in the educational system of the 
state ; and third the 'dynamic' theory, when the univer- 
sity becomes a great dynamo to release and transmit 
the forces of the state and the nation. 

Dr. Smith declared his belief that the history of the 
University of North Carolina best illustrated the inter- 
change of these progressive ideals, and offered in con- 
clusion this sentiment : "The University of North 
Carolina, once the oldest, now the youngest state uni- 

96 tKfje jTunttion of ttje ^tate Winibttaitp 


Mr. John Blair, Superintendent of the Wilmington 
Public Schools, speaking as the representative of the 
City and State School Superintendents, brought hearty- 
greetings. He spoke in hearty appreciation of the 
University men with whom he had been associated 
in his work, and of the educational system 'inherited' 
from the University, reminding the audience of the 
fact that it was "a young man from the city of Wil- 
mington, Hinton James, who walked all the way to 
Chapel Hill from that seaport town and matriculated 
as the first student of this University." In conclusion 
Mr. Blair added greetings from the City of Wilming- 
ton: "I presume, Mr. Toastmaster, that you called 
upon me because I have the honor of representing the 
only available naval base in the borders of North Caro- 
lina. . . . It is my very great pleasure to bring 
to you greetings from our chief seaport town." 


Dr. D. H. Hill, in delivering the greetings of the 
A. & M. College, related a tradition of the Catawba 
Indians. After describing the symbolic ceremony of 
inducting a new chief into office by presenting a basket 
containing earth, salt and meal, Dr. Hill continued, 
"With cordial esteem I present you. President Gra- 
ham, on the day that you are inducted into office, an 
imaginary basket, containing the three primal ele- 
ments used by the Indians. The earth typifies the 
hope of your friends that you will improve from year 
to year the physical equipment of the great University 
confided to your care. The salt is to signify the ex- 
pectation that you, while pressing forward to new 

Cte ZHnitiersiitp of ^rtfj Carolina 97 

achievements, will preserve in students and faculty the 
high traditions, the manly virtues, the robust thought, 
the admirable democracy that has made the University 
a nursery of men. The meal is emblematic of the con- 
viction that you will seek to add to the mental sub- 
sistence of the young men confided to your leadership 
such broad conceptions of duty, such intense patriot- 
ism, such clear ideals of a citizen's responsibilities that 
every graduate of the University will enter life conse- 
crated to service." 


Dr. Nitze, who brought congratulations from the 
University of Chicago in person, related the story of 
the American who told an Englishman that George 
Washington had thrown a penny across the Delaware 
River. "Ah!" said the Englishman, "That's impossi- 
ble. No man could do that." "But," said the Ameri- 
can, "you forget that in that day a penny went a great 
deal further than it does today." In our college and 
university work, words used to go a great deal further 
than they do today, and it is most gratifying, there- 
fore, that a university with the prestige of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina has seen fit to choose as its 
president a professor of English literature. "In 
bringing to this University the greetings of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, I bring to you in particular the 
congratulations of our English department." 


Dr. Baskerville offered congratulations on behalf of 
the New York Academy of Science, and of the College 
of the City of New York. He spoke in terms of affec- 

98 Ctie ^Function of ti^e ^tate WinMx^itp 

tion of his old days as a student and as a professor at 
the University of North Carolina. "Whatever I have 
done in my work as a chemist is due in large measure 
to my training at the University under the guidance of 
Dr. Venable," he said, and concluded with graceful 
felicitations to the new president and congratulations 
to the University and the State. 

HON. T. w. bicki;tt 
After a humorous preamble, Mr. Bickett announced : 
"On this day there has been launched a big unit in the 
forces that make for civilization, a unit that I believe 
is divinely commissioned to upbuild in this common- 
wealth a kingdom whose power and whose glory shall 
be the cunning hand and the cultured brain. I congratu- 
late the people of North CaroHna that the president of 
this University brings to his office a sympathetic inter- 
pretation of the thought of all the people of the State, 
an abiding faith in the fundamental excellence of the 
average man, and a heart that is more quickly stirred 
by the aspirations of the men in the fields, in the 
streets, and in the shops than by the thunder of the 
captains and the shouting. I think that this interpreta- 
tion, this thought and this feeling constitute his call 
and his commission and afford the surest guarantee of 
the wise beneficence of his administration," 


Dr. Mims delivered the congratulations of Vander- 
bilt University. His opening words were expressive 
of his love of North Carolina and for the University. 
After a personal tribute of affection to the new presi- 

turtle Winihtvsiitp of i^ortfj Carolina 99 

dent, Dr. Mims expressed rejoicing in the honor be- 
stowed upon him. 

"I beheve," said Dr. Mims, "that this man is destined 
to throw Hght on the most important problem that is 
before the American educational world today, the de- 
velopment of the college of liberal arts." Continuing, 
Dr. Mims expressed the belief that the professional 
school is well established but that we have no clear 
idea of what the modern college should be. Declaring 
the beloved Dr. Graham to be the living incarnation of 
the typical product of the modern American college, 
he expressed faith in his power to solve the problem. 
"What is expected of a college man today?" proceeded 
Dr. Mims. "Are the men coming out of our colleges 
more thoughtful men? I believe that loose thinking is 
as dangerous as loose living and that right thinking is 
as essential as right living. What do our college men 
think about today? What do they talk about? Do 
they know a good man when they see him, a good book, 
a good job when they face it ? I believe the most hope- 
ful thing about this institution is that the college of 
liberal arts is such a fundamental part of the institution 
that this new president is going to interpret anew in the 
lives of these students, what culture means, what 
scholarship means, and what a wise man who comes 
out of our colleges ought to be." 


After a number of reminiscences of the days of the 
University reopening, Mr. Manning concluded : "There 
were behind that reopening of this University men in 
North Carolina devoted not only to the State but to 
the institution, men whose courage and faith in the 

100 ^f)c Jf unction of tije ^tate ^nibetsiitp 

State had been tested. ... It was an auspicious 
day. It betokened the awakening of a great peo- 
ple. . . . We see today something of the result 
of the dreams of these men. 

"I congratulate you, Mr. President, that you take 
charge of an institution that is not an infant but a 
giant reveling in its strength, ready to serve, equipped 
to serve, and willing to serve." 


From 9:00 to 11 :00 o'clock in the evening the Uni- 
versity entertained its guests at a reception given in 
the Bynum Gymnasium. 


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